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Full text of "The Fauna of the Portrane Limestone. 1. The Inarticulate Brachiopods."

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Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). 

London :BM(NH) 
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■— 

1 



BULLETIN OF 



<$ 



2 J AUG1964 



THE BRITISH MUSEUM 
(NATURAL HISTORY) 



GEOLOGY 

VOL. VIII 

1963 



TRUSTEES OF 



THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 



LONDON: 1964 



( 



2 J /JJS 



CONTENTS 



GEOLOGY VOLUME VIII 



No. 4. 

No. 5. 

No. 6. 
No. 7 



PAGE 



No, I, The structure and relationships of the Jurassic fish Ichtkyokentema 
pttrbeckensis. J. Griffith & C. Patterson 

No. 2. A new Mesozoic Flora from Tico, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. 
S. Archangelsky 

No. 3. The Silurian rocks of the Ludlow District, Shropshire. C. H. Holland, 



J, D. Lawson & V. G. Walmsley 

Middle Jurassic Ostracoda from North Lincolnshire. R. H. Bate 



Certain Palaeoniscoid Fishes and the Evolution of the Snout in 
Actinopterygians. B. G. Gardiner 

The Caradocian Brachiopod Faunas of the Bala District, Merioneth- 
shire, A. Williams 

Index to Volume VIII 



45 



93 



173 



The Fauna of the Portrane Limestone I. The Inarticulate Brachio- 
pods. A. D, Wright ( 221 



255 
473 



* 



THE FAUNA OF THE 
PORTRANE LIMESTONE 

i. THE INARTICULATE BRACHIOPODS 



A. D. WRIGHT 



BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
GEOLOGY 



Vol. 8 No. 5 



LONDON: 1963 



^^^^■i 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^M 



^^^^^^^H 



THE FAUNA OF THE PORTRANE LIMESTONE 

i. THE INARTICULATE BRACHIOPODS 



1 5 AU 



BY 



ANTHONY DAVID WRIGHT 

{Queen's University, Belfast) 



Pp. 221-254 J 4 Plates ; 5 Text-figures 



BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

GEOLOGY Vol. 8 No. 5 

LONDON: 1963 



THE BULLETIN OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

(NATURAL history), instituted in 1949, is 
issued in Jive series corresponding to the Departments 
of the Museum, and an Historical series. 

Paris tmll appear at irregular intervals as they become 
ready. Volumes will contain about three or jour 
hundred pages, and will not necessarily be completed 
within one calendar year. 

This paper is VoL 8, No. 5 of the Geological 
(Palaeontological) series. The abbreviated titles of 
periodicals cited follow those of the World List of 
Scientific Periodicals. 



Trustees of the British Museum 1963 



PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

Issued August 1963 Price Twenty Shillings 



THE FAUNA OF THE PORTRANE LIMESTONE 

i. THE INARTICULATE BRACHIOPODS 



By A. D. WRIGHT 



CONTENTS 



I. 

II. 
III. 
IV. 

V. 



VI, 



Introduction to the Portrane Limestone 
Historical Summary 

The Fauna — Preservation and Location 
Inarticulate Brachtofods 
Systematic Descriptions 
Superfamily Obolacea King 
Family Obolidac King , 
Lingulella sp. i 
Lingulella sp. 2 
Lingulella sp. 3 

Acanthambonia portranensis sp. no v. 
Lepiobolus rams sp, nov, , 
Rowellella minuta gen. et sp, nov, 
Superfamily Trimerellacea Davidson & King 
Family Paterulidae Cooper * 
Pater ula cL perfecta Cooper 
Superfamily Acrotretacea Schuchert 
Family Acrotretidae Schuchert 
Spondy loir eta paw a sp. no v. 
Spondy hireta cL paw a 
Ephippelasma} sp* . 
Scaphelasma? sp. 
Superfamily Siphonotretacea Kutorga 
Family Si phono tret idae Kutorga 
Multisp inula sp, 1 
Mxtliispinula sp. 2 
Superfamily Discinacea Gray . 
Family Trematidae Schuchert 

Tremaiis sp. 
Family Discitiildae Gray 

Orbiculoidea shallachensis Reed 
Orbiculoidea sp. 
Schizotreia concava sp. no v. 
Schizolreia sp, . 
Super family Craniacea Forbes 
Family Craniidae Forbes 

Eoconuhts transversus sp. nov, 
Acanihocrania cracentis sp. nov. 
Acanihocrania sp. 
Philhedretla celiica sp. nov. 
References . 



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GEOL, S r 5 



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--4 



THE FAUNA OF THE PORTRANE LIMESTONE 

SYNOPSIS 



This paper is the first of a series by several authors describing a large fauna which has been 
etched out of the Portrane Limestone, The limestone is of Upper Ordovician age, although the 
precise horizon has not yet been satisfactorily established. One of the objects of the study is 
to use the large fauna now available to settle this question. In this part } an introduction to 
the work is given, followed by a systematic description of the inarticulate brachiopods, covering 
a total of fifteen genera, including one new genus, Rowellella, and eight new species. 

I. INTRODUCTION TO THE PORTRANE LIMESTONE 

Situated on the coast of Co. Dublin, Eire, about twelve miles north of the capital, 
is the small but interesting inlier of Portrane, where Lower Palaeozoic rocks are 
exposed on the eastern edge of a tract of what is dominantly Lower Carboniferous 
country. Within the rock sequence of the inlier occurs a limestone series, the 
Portrane Limestone. The present paper is the first of a series of papers describing 
the fauna of this limestone, or more specifically, of an horizon within the limestone 
sequence. This horizon has yielded an extraordinary diversity of invertebrate 
stocks, particularly of brachiopods and arthropods. The exceptionally large fauna 
will, it is hoped, settle finally the problem of the exact age of the Portrane Limestone 
within the Upper Ordovician. It is also expected that this fauna will contribute 
towards the correlation of the Upper Ordovician rocks not only within the British 
Isles, but also with those of Eastern North America and Scandinavia whose faunas 
are already known to have affinities with those of Britain. 

Due to the large size of the brachiopod fauna it has been necessary to divide it 
into the two classes. This first part of the study is concerned with the inarticulate 
brachiopods ; the description of the articulate forms will follow in due course. The 
arthropods, which also form a major part of the fauna, will be described by Dr. W. T. 
Dean of the British Museum (Class Trilobita) and Dr. Gunnar Henningsmoen of the 
Paleontologisk Museum, Oslo (Class Qstracoda) ; I am very pleased to have their 
cooperation in this project. These two groups will form separate parts of the series. 

In the final part, a complete fauna! list will include the various other phyla as 
well as the brachiopods and arthropods, which are present either in a poor state of 
preservation or else in quantities which are too small to justify the publication of a 
separate Bulletin. In this part also will be included a summary of the conclusions 
as to the dating of this horizon, which will combine all the faunal evidence available. 



II. HISTORICAL SUMMARY 

A description of the geology of the inlier was first given by Medlieott (1853), in 
which he listed the sixteen fossil species previously recorded by M'Coy {1846} as 
coming from Portrane. Du Noyer, of the Irish Geological Survey, gave a descrip- 
tion of the area (Du Noyer, 1861 : n , 12) which also included a list of some fifty 
species identified by Baily. This list was revised later (Baily, 1880 : 82) and in the 
revised form was included by Sollas (1895 : 10 r) in his account of the geology of 
Dublin and its neighbourhood. 

The area w r as remapped by Gardiner & Reynolds (1897) who gave the first precise 
data on the fossil horizons and localities. The faunas of their principal fossiliferous 



THE FAUNA OF THE POKTRANE LIMESTONE 



225 




M i I es 



10 20 30 40 50 



Fig. i. Map of Ireland to show the situation of the Portrane Inlier relative to the other 
outcrops of Ordovician rocks (shaded). 

horizons were described by Reed in the appendix to this paper. Their largest fauna 
was obtained from the massive limestone, which, as stated by Harper (1948 : 57), 
is in the middle of the limestone sequence, with thinly bedded limestones and shales 



226 THE FAUNA OF THE PORTRANE LIMESTONE 

both above and below. At the time of their investigation a small quarry had just 
been opened in the massive limestone at the top of a cliff (Gardiner & Reynolds , 
1897 : 529, pi, 43, locality " C "), and it was this quarry which yielded to them nine- 
teen trilobites, one ostracod and nine brachiopod species. In commenting on the 
fauna Reed (1897 : 537) noted that the brachiopods " on the whole seem to be far 
from common ". For the limestone bands below the massive limestone the fauna, 
according to Reed, consists dominantly of poorly 7 preserved corals, only one 
trilobite being included in his list (p, 538), 

The paucity of brachiopods in Reed's list is surprising, particularly as Baily 
records the presence of sixteen species of this phylum, and Cole (1892 : 34) says 
" here at Portraine brachiopod life is at once seen to be abundant ". 

Since 1897 contributions on the structure of the inlier have been made by Lam on t 
(1938), Sliackleton & Harper (1940), whilst Professor J. C. Brindley and Mr. B. 
Connor of University College, Dublin are currently investigating this aspect of the 
geology. 

Contributions on the age of the limestone have been made by Lamont (1938 : 9 ; 
1941 : 455), Stubblefield (1939 : 61), the various opinions being summarised by Harper 
(1948 : 57), These interpretations of the age of the limestone vary between late 
Caradocian to early Ashgillian. More recently Dean (1961 : 124) has suggested 
the possibility of a Pusgillian age for the Portrane Limestone. The suggested ages 
have, however, been based principally on one or two trilobite species, rather than an 
assemblage ; with the large and varied assemblage now available it is hoped to 
provide conclusive evidence of its age. 

Ill, THE FAUNA — PRESERVATION AND LOCATION 

One feature that has been noted by all who have commented on the Portrane 
Limestone is that the thinly bedded limestones under the massive limestone contain 
abundant corals which have been weathered out by the sea. Before the turn of 
the century it was realised that this occurred because the corals (and the other 
fossils) had been silicified (Cole, 1892 : 33 ; Sollas, 1895 : 10 1), but until the current 
investigation no use of this knowledge had been made to try to obtain a fauna, 
although etching techniques have now been in use for some years. 

The limestone from which the present fauna has been etched is found in this series 
of thinly bedded limestones and shales, that is, the one beneath the massive lime- 
stone. The localities which have proved so profitable are to be found on either 
side of a small bay immediately to the south-west of the old lime kiln (see 
Text-fig. 2), At the top of the cliff on the north-east side of the bay is the 
base of the massive grey limestone ; beneath it are thinly bedded dark limestone 
bands (about 7 cm. thick) which alternate with black shales. The limestones of this 
part of the sequence are usually devoid of fossils, and the beds (about 5| metres in 
thickness) show considerable contortion, Beneath these is a band of dark limestone 
attaining a maximum thickness of 35 cm. This is the highest of the richly f ossi- 
ferous horizons from which material was etched, being fossiliferous for a distance of 
over 10 metres laterally along the cliff. Underlying this are a further 60 cm, of the 
thin bedded limestone-shale alternations, and then ii metres of highly fossiliferous 



THE FAUNA OF THE PORTRANE LIMESTONE 



227 



testone, the bands varying from 5 to 23 cm. in thickness, and separated by thin 
shaly partings ; these limestone bands yielded the bulk of the fauna at this locality. 

The same horizon can be traced on the south-west side of the bay where it has also 
yielded a large fauna ; further along the coast to the south-west more material has 
been obtained from this horizon, but here it is by no means so rich in fossils. 

The etching of the material was carried out using dilute acetic acid in preference 




Martello Tower 



PORTRANE 

L IMESTONE 

SERIES 



■4- M i J e 



Fig. 2. Sketch-map of the coastline at Portrane, showing the three most fossiliferous 
localities of the Limestone series. Apart from the continuous outcrop indicated, 
smaller outcrops occur immediately east of the north Martello Tower, and at the edges 
of the strand south-west of St. Kenny's Well. 



to hydrochloric acid (Bell, 1948) as the latter would have been harmful to the inar- 
ticulate brachiopods. Although the etching was consequently a much slower 
process, the fact, that fifteen genera of these interesting little shells have been 
recovered more than compensates for the additional time involved. 
The actual silicification itself presents problems ; in the first place the silicification 



228 



THE FAUNA OF THE PORTRANE LIMESTONE 



is not always complete, so that some specimens are lost or badly eaten away during 
etching ; secondly the coarseness of the silicification is also variable. The corals, 
as already stated by Reed {1897 : 538), are in a very inferior state of preservation as 
a result of the imperfect silicification ; preservation of the brachiopods varies, 



T^T 



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^T 



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1 r 




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8 



4 

3 



a 



nn 



gpe? 



S£ 




I 



MASSIVE 
LIMESTONE 

LIMESTONES 
WITH SHALES 

FOSS1UFERQUS 
LIMESTONES 



j METRE 



Fig. 3. The Upper Ordovician Limestone sequence of the Portrane Inlier ; ( 1) the lowest 
thinly-bedded limestone— shale sequence in Lime Kiln Bay, base not seen ; (2) highly 
fossiliferous limestone bands with thin shale partings : (3) un fossil ifero us limestone and 
shales ; (4) the highest and thickest limestone band from which a fauna was etched ; 
{5) highly contorted thinly bedded limestones and shales, very poorly fossiliferous ; 
(6) pale massive limestone ; (7) upper thinly bedded limestones and shales, an un- 
known thickness being cut out by faulting. 



sometimes they show large coarse rings of beekite, sometimes they are preserved 
down to the finest details. 

The stratigraphy of the inlier as a whole is being investigated by the writer and 



THE FAUNA OF THE PORTRANE LIMESTONE 



229 



will be described elsewhere ; this present series of papers is concerned with the des- 
cription of the first silicified Upper Ordovician fauna recorded from the British Isles. 



IV. THE INARTICULATE BRACHIOPODS 

Fifteen genera of inarticulate brachiopods are described in the following systematic 
account and include one new genus and eight new species. Other specimens, which 
evidently do not belong to any known species, are only represented either as an 
odd valve or broken fragments. The erection of new species for these forms is not 
justified on the present material Certain other etched fragments are too frag- 
mentary for identification or description ; this is the case with " lingulid " fragments 
in particular. Accordingly these scraps have been retained by the writer pending 
further material of a more complete nature being recovered from future etchings. 

The inarticulates have little to contribute towards establishing the horizon of the 
limestone, due to the fact that Upper Ordovician forms from other regions arc 
insufficiently known and close comparisons cannot be made. Large scale acetic 
acid etching has been used on silicified limestones of Cambrian and Middle Ordovi- 
cian ages (Palmer, 1955 ; Cooper, 1956) ; but not on Upper Ordovician rocks prior 
to the present investigation. 

Of the genera present at Portrane, the only known species of the new genus 
Rowelldla is from the Portrane Limestone itself, LinguUlla is ubiquitous, whilst 
the genera Paierula, Muliispinula, Orbictdoidea, Schizotreta and Tr emails are wide- 
spread, being recorded from the British Isles, Europe, America and in some cases 
North Africa, Paterida is generally a rather rare form. The occurrence of Miilti- 
spinula is probably rather high for this genus, which was erected by Rowell (1962) 
to embrace Middle Ordovician species previously referred to ScMzamhon. Reed 
(1917) has however recorded the genus from the Drummuck Group (Starfish Bed) 
at Girvam 

Six genera, previously unknown outside North America, occur at Portrane : — 
Leptobolus, Acanthambonia, Eoconulus, Spondytotreta, Ephippelasma and Scaphe- 
lastna. Whilst Leptobolus ranges from Trenton to Cincinnatian, the remainder are 
Middle Ordovician forms and all occur in the Pratt Ferry Formation of Alabama, 
the last two not being recorded outside this particular horizon. Cooper (1956) also 
obtained a large and varied etched inarticulate fauna, but this should not be taken 
as indicating close stratigraphical relationship between the Pratt Ferry and the 
Portrane fauna. It does, however, serve to impress the fact that many inarticu- 
lates, which might prove to be useful stratigraphically if sufficient of them could be 
obtained, must be present in other Ordovician limestones. 

Whilst Spondylotreta has not previously been recorded from Europe, it may well 
be that specimens at present masquerading under the names of Conotreta and 
Acrotreta actually belong to Cooper's genus* 

Of the two remaining genera, Acanihocrania and Philhedrella, neither has been 
recorded from the British Isles. The former has a very long range in North America, 
and occurs in the Estonian Ordovician. Philhedrella has apparently been found 
only in eastern Europe, in the Baltic Ordovician and in the Polish Silurian ; unfor- 



230 



THE FAUNA OF THE PORTRANE LIMESTONE 



tunately there is some uncertainty about this genus as the type species is inade- 
quately known. 

The only inarticulate species from Port ran e which is undoubtedly conspecific 
with a described form is Qrbicidoidea shaUockensis Reed, known from the Whitehouse 
Group at Girvan. 

In conclusion, I should like to express my thanks to Di . A, J. Rowell of Nottingham 
University for reading and constructively criticising the manuscript, and also to 
Professor A, Williams for granting me access to his data on the Girvan brachiopods, 
which had not been published by the time this work was completed. 



V. SYSTEMATIC DESCRIPTIONS 

Super family OBOLACEA King 

Family OBOLIDAE King 

Subfamily LINGULELLINAE Schuchert 

Genus LINGULELLA Salter, 1866 

Lingulelta sp. 1 

(PL i, figs. 1-4) 

Description. The two dorsal valves here placed are small for the genus, and of 
narrowly oval outline, tapering sharply both anteriorly and posteriorly. Profile 
gently and evenly convex with maximum width (almost two-thirds of the valve 
length) at about mid- valve. Ornament of concentric growth lines of variable 
strength, rather poorly preserved. 

Interior with a small apical plate ; muscle field about a quarter of the valve length, 
slightly thickened and of roundedly triangular outline with its front edge convex 
anteriorly. Differentiation of the muscle field not pronounced. Valve floor anterior 
to the muscle field traversed by fine, radiating pallial impressions. 

Dimensions. BB. 28219 : length 27 mm., width 1*4 mm. BB. 28220 : width 
1*4 mm. 



Lingulelta sp. 2 

(PL 1, figs. 5, 6) 

One dorsal valve and some fragments of this genus resemble Lingulella sp. 1 in 
outline and in the poorly preserved nature of the ornament , the fine concentric 
growth lines only being clearly seen on one fragment. The complete valve is slightly 
deeper than in Linguldla sp. 1, but the main difference is seen in the muscle field. 
This is thicker, with the anterior edge straight , and is further divided longitudinally 
into three sectors, with the median sector depressed below the lateral ones. The 
presence of a weak median ridge on the valve floor anterior to the muscle field also 
differentiates the two species. Width of dorsal valve (BB. 28221) 1*1 mm, 



THE FAUNA OF THE PORTRANE LIMESTONE 



231 



Lingulella sp. 3 

(PI. 1, figs. 7, 13) 

The posterior fragment of a ventral valve {BB. 28222) much larger than the above 
species shows a pair of well-defined propareas divided by a pedicle groove. The 
muscle impressions on the valve floor are very faint and show no thickening ; the 
anterior edge of the field appears to be quite straight. Ornament poorly preserved, 
but one side of the valve shows fine growth lines with a coarser concentric line 
developed at regular intervals. 

Discussion. From the above descriptions, it will be quite clear that species 1 
and 2 are quite distinct ; the problem is whether sp. 3, represented by a ventral 
valve, is conspecific with sp. 1, At first sight, the regular development of the 
stronger concentric lines in sp, 3 appears quite distinctive from that of sp. 1. How- 
ever, Cooper (1956 : 206) describes a species from the " Ottosee formation " of 
Virginia, Lingulella virginiensis } which possesses a similar ornament to Lingulella 
sp. 3, Cooper's figured specimen (pi. 1, C, figs. 4, 5) shows, as stated in his plate 
description (p. 1025), a difference in the ornamentation of each valve. That of 
the ventral valve is similar to Lingulella sp, 3 and that of the dorsal similar to 
Lingulella sp, X. 

Accordingly it may well be that the specimen here referred to as Lingulella sp. 3 
is in fact the ventral fragment of a large specimen of species 1 or even species 2, the 
ornament of the latter being too badly preserved to justify a decision either way. 

Other fragments of " lingulids " have been recovered from the etchings but in 
the absence of a distinctive ornament and the all important posterior margin, it is 
quite impossible to place such fragments in the correct subfamily, let alone genus 
or species. 



Subfamily ACANTHAMBONIINAE Cooper 

Genus ACANTHAMBONIA Cooper, 1956 

Acanthambonia portranensis sp. nov. 

(PL i, figs. 29-31) 

Diagnosis, Ventral valve of subcircular outline, evenly convex in transverse 
profile ; longitudinal profile strongly convex posteriorly, only gently so anteriorly. 
Shallow but distinct sulcus developed. Surface, including posterior margin, covered 
with fine hair -like spines and faint concentric growth lines. Beak small ; propareas 
narrow, separated by small pedicle groove thickened into a shallow plate internally 
at the apex. 

Muscle scars not w r ell defined posteriorly, but two very clear sub-oval adductor 
scars (0-3 mm. long in holotype) situated at about mid- valve ; at antero-median 
extremity of each, and protruding slightly towards mid- valve, is a tiny scar w r hich 
forms an apparently separate part of the muscle field. 

Dorsal valve gently convex ; inner surface with two narrow submedian grooves, 
diverging slightly and extending to margin. Posteriorly these grooves {vascula 



232 THE FAUNA OF THE PORTEANE LIMESTONE 

media}) are flanked by poorly-defined muscle fields, present as depressed areas and 
traversed by further radial grooves. 

Holotype. Ventral valve (BB, 29860) : 1*5 mm, long, 17 mm. wide. 

Paratypes. Ventral valve (BB, 29861) : 1-2 mm. long, 1*3 mm wide. Two 
broken valves, one ventral (BB + 29862) and the other dorsal (BB. 29863). 

Discussion, The new species differs from the two Porterfield species of Cooper, 
A. minuiissima and A. virginiensis, in having a ventral instead of dorsal sulcus; 
and in having clearly impressed ventral adductor scars. Although the dorsal valve 
here described is incomplete, the impressions of the interior compare closely with 
those of A, mimttissima (Cooper, 1956, pL 18, D, fig. 23), 



Subfamily GLOSSELLINAE Cooper 

Genus LEPTOBOLUS Hall, 1871 

Leptobolus varus sp, nov. 

(PL 2, figs. 1, 2) 

Diagnosis. Leptobolus possessing both radial and concentric ornament ; ventral 
interior with strong ridge extending anterior to pedicle groove, branching as a " U " 
fork. Two submedian round muscle pits developed anterior to main lateral scars. 

Holotype. Incomplete ventral valve (BB, 28229), x '3 mm - long. 

Description. Ventral valve small, gently convex, of sub-oval outline. Orna- 
ment not seen umbonally, anteriorly consisting of fine concentric growth lines, with 
stronger ones at intervals, and lightly impressed radial ribs. Very fine radiating 
lines superimposed over the whole surface. Interior with well developed propareas 
and a moderately deeply impressed pedicle groove, from which the stout internal 
median ridge extends anteriorly. This thick ridge terminates at about half the 
length of the muscle field, a pair of finer ridges developing from its outer sides. 
These diverge slightly and enclose a sub-oval median muscle scar, and then are 
deflected laterally to form the anterior margin of the main muscle area. Anterior 
to the point of deflection a pair of smaller rounded pits are developed between the 
ridges and the median scar. Anterior to the muscle scars, the punctate nature of 
the inner surface is clearly seen ; two radial ridges on one side of the valve are 
attributed to vascular origins. 

Dorsal valve unknown. 

Discussion. This genus was previously unknown in Europe, occurring only in 
North America, principally in rocks of Trenton-Cincinnatian age (see Foerste, 1924 : 
107), although Ruedemann (190 1 : 569) records an older species from the Normanskill 
Shale. This is a black graptolitic shale which contains only two other brachiopods, 
Paterula and Schizotreta, both of which are present at Portrane. Cooper (1956 : 214) 
also records two species from the Edinburg Formation that may probably be referred 
to Leptobolus. 

The Portrane form, although only present as a broken ventral valve, is considered 
to be sufficiently distinctive to warrant the erection of a new species. The only 



THE FAUNA OF THE POKTRANE LIMESTONE 



z$3 



other species possessing a radial ornament is L. insignis Hall, but this lacks the strong 
ridge in front of the pedicle groove, has a " V IJ shaped fork, and does not show the 
small, round and deeply impressed muscle pits anterior to the main scars as in 
Leptobolus rams. 

Genus ROWELLELLA no v. 

Diagnosis, Small, dorsi-biconvex, elongate sub-rectangular shells with minute 
marginal beaks. Direction of shell growth alters after young stages so that shell 
increments are added laterally at right angles to original growth direction, deepening 
the valve and giving a geniculate appearance to sides of valves in transverse profile. 
Growth of dorsal valve depressed ventrally along front margin giving a variably 
developed geniculation to valve, emphasising its convexity. Ornament of somewhat 
strong, irregular concentric lamellae. 

Ventral interior with median thickening posteriorly. Dorsal interior without 
apical plate ; muscle field only known at its anterior end, where a low median ridge 
separating the scars joins a stronger transverse u W " shaped ridge bounding the 
field anteriorly. Two sub-parallel or bowing grooves of vasctda media extend forward 
from this ridge. 

Discussion. The new genus resembles Pachyglossella Cooper (i960 ; 601) , 
[= Pachyglossa Cooper, 1956, non. Hodgson, 1843, non Fauvel, 1868] in the convex 
dorsal valve and similar ornament, but differs in the sub-parallel and geniculated 
lateral margins, while the strong convexity also separates the genus from other 
obolids, for example Lingalella, The features of the dorsal interior are not well 
known for Pachyglossella, hence a comparison cannot be made with Rowellella. 

The lack of an apical plate in the dorsal valve suggests that the genus belongs to 
the Glossellinae rather than the Lingulellinae, Only one young specimen shows the 
structure of the posterior margin of the dorsal valve, and so there is the possibility 
that the structure is absent because of the youth of the shell. 

Apart from two complete young shells, the specimens of the type species all appear 
to be dorsal valves, with the posterior region invariably broken. The absence of 
ventral valves may be due to cementation, but as no scars are seen on the complete 
valves, it would seem more likely that the ventral valves w T ere simply very thin and 
accordingly easily destroyed. Very thin shell may also account for the absence of 
the dorsal posterior ; the valves thin out posterior to the ridge at the anterior end 
of the muscle scars in the broken valves, whilst the shell of the young forms is also 
very thin compared with the thick shell of later growth stages as seen in the larger 
fragments. 

Type species, Rowellella minuia sp, no v. 



Rowellella minuta sp. no v. 

(PI, i, figs. 8-12, 14-28) 

Diagnosis. Small dorsi-biconvex valves of elongate outline, anterior and pos- 
terior margins evenly rounded, lateral margins sub-parallel. Lateral margins deflected 



234 



THE FAUNA OF THE PORTRANE LIMESTONE 



towards opposite valve producing a lateral geniculation, accompanied by ventral 
deflection of dorsal anterior margin and less pronounced reflection of ventral valve. 
Ornament of strong concentric lamellae only, densities of 12, 12 and 14 per mm. 
being taken on three specimens. 

Ventral interior shows posterior median thickening. Dorsal interior without 
apical plate. Muscle scars of posterior region of body unknown ; anteriorly a low 
ridge generally divides muscle field into two areas, but in two specimens ridge 
depressed medianly, indicating that muscles were probably attached in central 
region also. The ridge terminates against a thickened transverse " W " shaped 
ridge bounding muscle field anteriorly. From the two anterior points of the " W 7 \ 
two grooves of vascula media extend anteriorly either sub-parallel or bowed slightly 
outwards. Fine, light grooving at anterior margin indicates presence of vascula 
Urminalia. 



Holotype, Complete shell (BB. 28223) 
Paeatypes. Complete shell (BB, 28224) 
Incomplete dorsal valve (BB, 28225) 
Incomplete dorsal valve (BB, 28226) 
Incomplete dorsal valve (BB. 28227) 
Incomplete dorsal valve (BB, 28228) 



Length 


Width 


Thickness 


1*0 mm. 


0*45 mm. 


0*25 mm. 


i-2 mm. 


o-6 mm, 
0-65 mm. 
075 mm. 
1*15 mm. 


0-25 mm. 


— 


1-3 mm. 


— 



Discussion. Due to the broken nature of the posterior margin, no measurements 
(width excepted) can be taken on the sample except in the case of the two complete 
shells. These are young shells, but the older shells are still very small, the maximum 
width recorded being 1-4 mm,, whilst the longest shell {broken posteriorly) measures 
i-8 mm. The broken posterior margin also prevents an accurate density for the 
growth lamellae being given, as there can be no control on the position of measure- 
ment. This is very important when giving an accurate statistical assessment of the 
character, as the lamellae vary according to their position, becoming coarser with 
the increased size of the shell. 

Little is known of the ventral interior, the thickening of the posterior region being 
observed through the exterior of the shell. 



Superfamily TRIMERELLACEA Davidson & King 

Family PATERULIDAE Cooper 

Genus PA TER ULA Barrande, 1879 

Little was known about the interior of this rather rare genus until Cooper (1956 ; 
236) described some well preserved etched specimens, in particular P. perfecia from 
the Pratt Ferry formation, Some of the Portrane shells are equally well preserved, 
and enable Cooper's description of the valve interiors to be enlarged upon ; unfor- 
tunately these shells are exceedingly fragile, to the extent that only one ventral 
valve possesses the flattened marginal rim in its entirety. Thus it is not possible to 
obtain length and width measurements for the valves to compare directly with those 



THE FAUNA OF THE PORTRANE LIMESTONE 



^35 



of Williams (1962 : 88) for P. batclatchiensis (Davidson), Measurements of length 
and width have been taken on the thickened inner edge of the marginal rim to obtain 
a statistic for " shell outline " ; obviously this does not represent a growth line of 
the shell, but it does give a certain indication of outline for this material. 

In the interior of the ventral valve, the present writer regards the whole thickened 
area of the valve floor posterior and posterolateral to the central scar as constituting 
the ventral muscle field. The central sear, which is situated at the anterior end of 
the two slightly divergent impressed grooves arising just in front of the pedicle 
groove, is pear-shaped rather than circular, with a definite apex at the anterior end. 
Posterolateral to the central scar is a pair of rounded pits which in some cases seem 
to be confluent with the smaller anterolateral pair, all being regarded as seats of 
muscle attachment. The thickened areas posterolateral to the impressed lines form 
the bulk of the muscle field, with a pair of impressed scars on the lateral edges, and 
a pair of umbonal scars at the posterior edge. Encircling the muscle field anteriorly 
are numerous pallial impressions which radiate outwards across the valve floor. 

In the dorsal valve the muscle field is large and bluntly sagittate in outline. 
Posteriorly the deeply inserted umbonal muscle scars are divisible into two ; antero- 
lateral to these another pair of triangular pits occurs at the edge of the muscle field. 
The anterolateral pallial trunks of Cooper are regarded as being anterolateral exten- 
sions of the muscle field ; the grooves developing at their edge, and passing on to 
the valve floor, are certainly pallial sinus impressions. The median tongue of the 
muscle field shows two pairs of small scars, one situated laterally near the posterior 
end, the other half way along the tongue. A pair of pallial sinus grooves develops 
from the median anterior margin of this part of the muscle field. 



Pater ula cf. perfect a Cooper 
{PL 2, figs, 3-5, 8-io, 13, 16) 

1956. Paterula perfect® Cooper, p. 238, pi. i8H, figs. 54-56, pi. 24D, figs. 12-23. 

Description. Small dorsibiconvex shells ; ventral valve very gently convex, 
about one tenth as deep as long ; dorsal valve about one sixth as deep as long, but 
ranging up to a quarter in larger valves. Outline sub-oval to sub-circular. Umbones 
of both valves sub-marginal ; ornament of fine concentric growth lines. Valve 
interiors with a peripheral rim and a clearly defined pedicle groove and notch in the 
ventral valve. Muscle and pallial impressions as described above. 

Discussion. The species nearest to the Portrane shells are Paterula perfecia 
Cooper, P poliia Cooper and P. baklaickiemis (Davidson). Internally, allowing for 
preservation, the Portrane shell cannot be differentiated from P. perfecia ; unfor- 
tunately the interiors of the other species are not known. 

Cooper (1956) distinguishes P. poliia from P. perfecia by its smaller size, more 
oval outline and less convex profile in both valves, and also by its smaller pedicle 
opening. Text-fig. 4 is a graph showing valve thickness against length for ventral 
and dorsal valves from Portrane, together with the paratypes of P. perfecia (dorsal 
and ventral) and P. polita (dorsal only). 



-3 6 



THE FAUNA OF THE PORTRANE LIMESTONE 



Although only a solitary reading is available for the American shells, and the 
measurements are given to the nearest 0-05 mm., the following points are noted : 

1. The Portrane valves vary over the size range of both P. polita and P, 
perfecta. 

g. The dorsal valve of P. perfecta paratype has identical measurements with a 
Portrane valve. 



0-6 



< 



-< 0*4 

n - - 

CD 
in 
in 



03 



3 

3 



02 



0-1 







>■■ 



M 



1 2 3 

length of shell (mm.) 



Fig. 4, Graph showing the relationship of valve thickness to length in dorsal and ventral 
valves of Paterula. X — Portrane dorsal valves ; - — Portrane ventral valves ; » — 
ventral paratype of P. perfecta ; -[ dorsal paratype of P. perfecta ; ± — dorsal para- 
type of P. polita. The Portrane ventral valve whose length is approximate is enclosed 
by a broken line. 

3. The plots of the Portrane dorsal valves lie on a curve, suggesting allometric 
growth, with larger valves relatively thicker than smaller ones. 

4. The dorsal valve of P. polita falls within the scatter of this curve. 

5. The gradient for the Portrane ventral valves is very much less than for 
the dorsal ones, indicating that they are less convex ; a comparison with the 
solitary valve of P. perfecta shows the latter to be much deeper. The Portrane 



THE FAUNA OF THE PORTRANE LIMESTONE 237 

valve of comparable size is the largest from the locality and is broken anteriorly \ 
the thickness is 0*3 mm,, the length c. 3*0 mm., but may be slightly longer. 

From the above it would appear that, first, on actual size, and convexity of the 
dorsal valve, there is little justification for separating the three forms ; and secondly, 
the ventral valve is deeper for P. perfecta than for the Portrane shells. Unfortu- 
nately, the samples are too small to indicate whether this is statistically significant 
or not. 

The width : length ratio for the solitary Portrane ventral valve whose peripheral 
rim is sufficiently well preserved for measurement, is 80% : measurements on the 
inner rim for eight valves give ratios of So, 82, 87, 88, 89, 92, 93, 97 %, the mean 
(and variance) for these figures being 88-5% (31 -7). Thus, even using this statistic 
as indicating outline, there is considerable variation. Measurements taken from 
Cooper's figures for this statistic give 91, gi, 94 1 95, 97%. Comparison by Rank 
Sum Test shows no significant difference between the two sets of shells. 

No figures are available for this statistic for the Balclatchie shells. For the true 
valve outline Williams {1962) gives 96*4% (var. 35-2) as the ratio for ir valves ; a 
direct comparison of this with the ri outline statistic " for the Portrane valves by a 
" T '* test shows a significant difference (0*01 > p > o-ooi) ; whilst such a compari- 
son is not strictly valid it certainly indicates the rounder outline of the Balclatchie 
shells, 

With the evidence available the Portrane shells are placed close to P. perfecta f 
probably differing only in the flatter ventral valve. P. polita is very likely also 
conspecific with P. perfecta. 

Superfamily ACROTRETACEA Schuchert 

Familv ACROTRETIDAE Schuchert 

Subfamily ACROTRETINAE Schuchert 

Genus SPONDYLOTRETA Cooper, 1956 

This aerotretinid is characterised by the presence of a strong median septum in 
the ventral valve supporting a spoon-shaped structure at the apex, which in life bears 
the pedicle. The posterior ^dges of the structure continue along the inside of the 
pseudointerarea towards the commissure as a pair of divergent ridges. 

Cooper remaiks (1956 : 255) that the strong median septum has a similar function 
to the antero-apical callosity of Conotreia ; and indeed it appears rather difficult to 
distinguish between the two when the median septum of Spondylotreta is not so well 
developed, or when the callosity of Conotreia is well developed. This is brought 
out by figures of an internal cast of Conotreia davidsoni (Williams, 1962, pi. 7, figs, 1- 
3), which show the apex divided into three, indicating an arrangement not very far 
removed from that of Spondylotreta, 

Some uncertainty also exists over the dorsal valve of this genus, the ornament 
being the principal basis for assignment of a solitary concave valve to the type 
species, S. concenirica Cooper. 

Type species. Spondylotreta concenirica Cooper (1956 ; 255}. 

GEOL, s, 5 



2U 



23* 



THE FAUNA OF THE PORT KANE LIMESTONE 



Length 


Width 


Height 


115 mm. 


1*4 mm. 


1*1 mm. 


1*3 mm. 


— 


— 


1*4 mm. 


l '5 mm. 


— 


x*4 mm, 


— 


c. 1*4 mm* 



Spondylotreia parva sp, nov, 

(PL 2, figs. 17, 20-25 ; PL 3, figs, i, 5, 9, 15) 

Diagnosis. Small Spondylotreia of sub-circular outline ; ornament of fine con- 
centric growth lines continuous across pseudointerarea, Ventral valve conical, 
with raised median track along pseudointerarea. Dorsal valve fiat w T ith shallow 
median sulcus ; dorsal interior with triangular median septum occupying middle half 
of valve, apex of septum within anterior third of its length ; posterolateral muscle 
field large. 



HoLOTYPE. Ventral valve (BB. 29871) 
Paratypes, Dorsal valve (BB. 29872) 
Dorsal valve (BB. 29873) 
Ventral valve (BB. 29874) 
Unfigured paratypes BB, 29875-76. 



Description. Posterior of conical ventral valve flattened due to the broad 
pseudointerarea whose elevated median track shows no sign of an intertrough ; 
foramen minute, slightly post-apical. Mean apical angle in longitudinal profile for 
nine valves was 79 ° (var. 74 °) ; for the same valves the mean transverse apical angle 
was 87 ° (var, 95 °). The mean height of the cones, measured perpendicularly to the 
plane of commissure, for seven valves was 75*5% of the valve length (var, 183-6%). 
The mean ratio of length : width at the commissure for eight valves was 91% (var, 

72%)* 

For the outline of ten dorsal valves a mean length : w r idth ratio of 96*5% (var, 

37*4) was recorded, the straighter posterior margin of an otherwise round outline 

being broken medianly by the small protruding beak. The almost flat profile of 

this valve is modified by a convex umbonal region and a narrow groove or sulcus 

developed anteriorly. 

The density of the concentric ornament varies according to position of measure- 
ment on the shell (p, 234), However, 30, 31 and 33 concentric ridges per millimetre 
were recorded for one ventral and two dorsal valves respectively. 

In the ventral interior, the median septum is formed from a pair of closely opposed 
parallel plates on the anterior wall, and extends about half way to the commissure. 
Apically the plates are high, extending to the middle of the valve to unite with a 
vertical column extending dorsally from the apex. Two divergent plates develop 
from this column to form a pedicle chamber in the posterior part of the apex. A 
pair of apical pits (Palmer, 1955 : 768) is situated on the posterior surface at the ends 
of the pedicle chamber. On the anterolateral surfaces of each side of the apical 
structure are three simple pallial sinuses ; towards the commissure the interior is 
covered with fine radial lines which are the vascula terminalia produced by branching 
of the main canals. 

In the dorsal interior is a triangular median groove posteriorly, bounded laterally 
by small concave propareas, the inner edges of w r hich are thickened into vent rally 
projecting eminences. Around the remainder of the valve is a more or less well 



THE FAUNA OF THE PORTRANE LIMESTONE 



^39 



defined flat, slightly thickened marginal band or rim. In front of the posterior 
groove is a subrectangular depression corresponding to the platform of Conotreta. 
Rising anterolaterally from this is a pair of divergent ridges which form the inner 
edges of a pair of small but clearly impressed areas, probably for muscle attachment. 
Anterolateral to these is a pair of larger, shallowly impressed sub-elliptical muscle 
scars, which are bounded on the inside by a low medianly deflected continuation of 
the divergent ridges and on the outside by the rim, The strong median septum 
rises gently from the anterior end of the lt platform *', reaching a sharp point near 
its front end, then falling sharply to the valve floor. 

The mean length from the umbo to the anterior end of the median septum relative 
to the valve length for ten specimens was 73-6% {var. 15-6) ; the mean length from 
the umbo to the maximum height of the median septum relative to valve length for 
six specimens was 57-3% (var. 23 *g) ; and the mean length of the valve posterior 
to the median septum to valve length for nine valves was 237% (var, 9-95), 

Discussion. The size of these shells is very small ; the mean length recorded 
for eight ventral valves was 1*27 mm. (var. 0-22), and for ten dorsal valves 1*15 mm. 
(var 0-33). Considering all features of the shells (numbers, size, outline, ornament, 
etc.) it is evident that the two valves belong together, a factor which is not always 
clear when working with etched material. These shells are placed in this genus on 
the basis of the internal structure of the ventral valves, which is rather variably 
developed in the species, the septa sometimes only being seen as a dark " Y " in 
the apex of the valve when held up to the light. The large posterolateral muscle 
field of the dorsal valves agrees with that figured by Cooper (1956) for his type 
species, confirming the placing of his dorsal valve with the ventral valves of the 
genus, and further separating the genus from Conotreta. 

The new species differs from the type species. S. concenirica, in having a pro- 
nounced median ridge along the pseudointerarea, less developed septa in the ventral 
interior (which may be accounted for by the smaller size) and a well developed 
depression anterior to the posterior median groove of the dorsal interior. The only 
other species at present referred to this genus is S.? declivis (Willard) whose interior 
is unknown. Its ventral valve differs from S. parva in having a concave posterior 
slope with a well defined inter trough. 



Spondylotreta cf, parva 

(PL 2, figs, n, 12, 14, 15, 18, 19) 

Apart from the small delicate 5. parva, fragmentary specimens of larger, thicker 
shells (BB. 29877-81) are also present, A strong median ridge in the ventral frag- 
ments appears to have supported a spoon-shaped structure umbonaily, as in 5. parva ; 
the pallial markings are much more pronounced but again show a simple pattern. 

The dorsal fragments resemble S. parva especially in the disposition of the postero- 
lateral muscle scars, but differ in the generally more transverse outline, together 
with much wider and more substantial propareas, separated only by a weakly 
developed median groove. Anterior to this, the platform is a thickened area, whilst 



J4Q THE FAUNA OF THE PORTRANE LIMESTONE 

the median septum appears to have its maximum development at its posterior end, 
It would appear that many of these features are merely the result of thickening, 
and are thus large forms of 5, parva ; but a specimen of comparable size to 5, parva 
(c. i-2 mm.) shows the transverse outline (the specimen is broken but a length : width 
ratio on a growth line is 75%) and the contrasting proparea development, 

In view of the fragmentary nature of these shells they are placed as S, cf* parva ; 
complete material is necessary before the variation of shell outline can be put in 
perspective , and the problem would be simplified by the recovery of shells showing 
continuous size variation between the small S. par va and the larger shells (the largest 
incomplete specimen is over 4*0 mm. long). 

Genus EPHIPPELASMA Cooper, 1956 

Ephippetasma ? sp. 

(PL 3, figs, 2, 6, io f 14) 

Description. Ventral valve minute, of elongatedly conical profile with the apex 
curved posteriorly, apical angle about 40 °. Foramen circular, minute, situated just 
posterior to the umbo. Outline of commissure transversely elliptical with straight 
anterior and posterior margins, Pseudointerarea wide, poorly preserved, concave 
in profile ; very slight tendency for a sulcus on the anterior surface of the shell. 
Ornament of concentric growth lines ; valve interior obliterated. Dorsal valve 
unknown. 

Dimensions. BB. 29882 : length 0-55 mm., width 0*8 mm,, height o«6 mm. 

Discussion. A solitary ventral valve is quite different from the other acrotre- 
tinids here described in its valve profile, concave pseudointerarea, and in the elliptical 
outline of the commissure. The closest known acrotretinid to this valve is Ephip- 
petasma minutum Cooper, whose ventral valve appears to differ only in having a 
slightly narrower transverse apical angle, and in not having such a narrowly elliptical 
valve outline, which is a specific character of the Portrane shell. 

The genus is characterised by the extravagant development of a saddle-shaped 
plate in the dorsal valve, whose height is 0*6 mm. in the dorsal paratype of E. 
minutum, a valve itself only 0*6 mm. long. Unfortunately, no comparable dorsal 
valve was found in the Portrane material to confirm the placing of the ventral valve 
in this genus. 

Genus SCAPHELASMA Cooper, 1956 

Scaphelasma ? sp. 

{PL 2, figs. 6, 7) 

One small acrotretinid dorsal valve (BB. 29883 ; length o-6 mm., width o-8 mm.) 
appears to belong to this genus. The ornament differs strikingly from that of other 
members of the subfamily here described, consisting of fine concentric growth lines 
posteriorly, which pass sharply into very coarse concentric lamellae anteriorly. 

The valve is of transversely elliptical outline, convex umbonally, becoming flat 



THE FAUNA OF THE FORTRANE LIMESTONE 241 

and developing a shallow median sulcus, with convex rims anterolaterally. Valve 
interior with a short low median septum occupying the middle third of the valve, 
rising gently towards its anterior end, where a slightly thickened ridge following the 
shell outline crosses the valve floor. This ridge encloses a pair of sub-reniform 
muscle scars at its posterolateral extremities. Propareas small, with tooth-like 
eminences on either side of a median groove which has a thickened anterior margin 
forming a tiny " shelf ". A hollow on the valve floor separates this from the median 
septum. 

The specimen is placed in the genus Scaphelasma on the nature of the ornament, 
and to a lesser extent on outline, profile and valve interior. The " shelf " is some- 
what less prominent than that figured by Cooper for S, septatum (1956, pi. 18 , J) 
and the septum much lower ; neither does the septum reach the anterior margin. 
These differences, however, may be accounted for by the much smaller size of the 
Portrane shell. A comparison with the figured exterior of the type, and only, species 
of Scaphelasma from the Pratt Ferry formation shows that the coarse ornament 
develops very much earlier in the Portrane shell, at about 0*45 mm. instead of 
075 mm. 

Whilst in such a small valve the generalised features of the interior may equally 
well indicate a Conoireia, no species of Conoireta possesses this kind of ornament. 
The possible exception to this is Conotreta ? concentrica Cooper whose dorsal valve 
is not known, but which may represent a new genus in Cooper's opinion (1956 : 250). 

The dorsal valve of Rhysotreta also shows several similarities to the Portrane shell, 
especially in the ornament, but is quite distinct in the development of its interior. 



Superfamily SIPHONOTRETACEA Kutorga 

Family SIPHONOTRETIDAE Kutorga 

Genus MULTISPINULA Rowell, 1962 

Multispinula sp. 1 

(PL 3, figs. 22, 23) 

One incomplete ventral valve (BB> 29897) and two shell fragments (BB, 29898) 
are ascribed to this species. 

Description. Ventral fragment r-i mm. long, evenly convex with a slightly 
procline pseudointerarea. Foramen 07 mm, long, almost triangular with straight 
sides and a slightly irregular anterior edge ; posterior part filled by a concave plate 
situated below the valve surface. Ornament of simple concentric bands only ; no 
spines observed. 

The two shell fragments have an ornament of double rows of concentric spine- 
bearing lamellae which merge together laterally. The alternating spines have a 
density of about 7 per millimetre along the lamellae, and attain a length of 0-5 mm. 

Discussion. The genus Multispinula was erected by Rowell (1962 : 147) to 
include forms previously referred to Schizambon, but which possess a pseudointerarea 



242 



THE FAUNA OF THE PORTKANE LIMESTONE 



and a regular spinose ornament anteriorly. The fragments under discussion are all 
regarded as belonging to one species, the lack of spines in the umbonal region and 
their presence anteriorly being typical of many species '(e.g. M\ cuneatum (Willard)). 
The double row of lamellae on the spinose fragments is seen to merge into a single 
row laterally ; accordingly the presence of only a single row in the young umbonal 
stages may be expected, and thus does not conflict with the belief that all fragments 
belong to the same species. An accurate specific determination from this material 
is not possible. 

Multispinula sp. 2 

{PL 4, fig. 7) 

One fragment of this genus (RB> 29899) is separated from the above species, being 
characterised by a distinctly punctate surface, well seen on the posterior side where 
the spines are not developed ; by finer, more slender spines (g per mm,) arranged in 
single rows ; and by the absence of concentric lamellae, the spines arising in concen- 
tric rows directly from the shell surface. 



00 
00 
00 



a. 




















1 





b. 



c. 



d. 



Fig, 5. Diagrammatic representations of the different styles of ornament in the genus 



Trematis 
ribs; "< 



i 1 



1 j 



79 



a —radial rows of pits ; b '—radial rows of pits separated by radial 
-pits arranged in quincunx ; '* d "— pits arranged hexagonally. 



Superfamily DISCINACEA Gray 

Family TREMATIDAE Schuchert 

Genus TREMATIS Sharpe, 1848 

The most distinctive features of this genus are the large pedicle notch of the 
ventral valve and the unusual ornament. The latter is commonly described as 
consisting of " small pittings . . . arranged either in quincunx or in radiating 
rows " (HaU & Clarke, 1892 : 139) ; further distinctions are made on the shape of 
the pits, and in the second case, on the presence or absence of radial ribs between 
the rows- 

A review of the species ascribed to the genus leads the present writer to the conclu- 
sion that there are four basic types of ornament within the genus as understood at 
present. These are shown diagrammatically in Text-fig, 5. In style '■ a '* the pits 
are arranged radially but are not separated by ribs as in " b *\ Style " c " shows a 



THE FAUNA OF THE PORTHANE LIMESTONE 



2 43 



true quincuncial arrangement, and " d " the commoner hexagonal or honeycomb 
pattern. 

These four basic types do show a certain amount of variation and intergradatiom 
In the Portrane specimens , which are dominantly quincuncial, the pits on part of 
the shell show a honeycomb pattern. Irregularities of pattern have also been 
recorded by Wilson (1946 : 23) for the quincuncial 7\ terminalis. Accordingly, it 
seems doubtful that the quincuncial arrangement seen in 7\ parva will indicate a 
new genus as suggested by Cooper (1956 : 274), and further, although the majority 
of species of the genus do not have this pattern, it is developed in the type species 
(Sharpe, 1848:68! Text-figs. 1-3). In Emmons J original figures of Orbicula ter- 
minalis (1842 : 395, Text-fig. 4) the pits are not shown , only radial ornament being 
shown on the ventral and only concentric on dorsal valves. 

Using the pit arrangements of Text-fig. 5 as a basis, most of the species may be 
placed in four corresponding morphological groups ; for example, style " a " is 
typical of T. umbonata Ulrich, T. oblata Ulrich, 7\ ptmctostriata Hall, T. corona 
Salter; style "b" of T. siluriana Davidson, T. cancellata (G. B. Sowerby), 7\ 
ottawaensts Billings, T. crassipuncta Ulrich, T. huronensis Billings, T. Minneapolis 
(Sardeson), 7\ foerstei Cooper ; style fl c " of T. parva Cooper, T, melliflua Reed, 
7\ terminalis (Emmons) , T. quincimcialis Miller & Dyer ; style " d " of 7\ punctata 
(J, de C. Sowerby), T. millepunctata Hall, T. craigensis Reed. 

Two of Cooper's species cannot be satisfactorily placed in this grouping. Trematis? 
spinosa is described simply as having " densely crowded pits ", which are too fine 
for the style to be ascertained from the accompanying figures. The species is 
however quite distinctive in possessing spines. The large, elliptical shaped pits of 
T. ellipiopora are irregular and " crudely quincuncial M (Cooper, 1956 : 271) as are 
the Portrane shells, and so may be classed rather dubiously with style n c ". 

T. fragilis also appears to belong to group " c ", for although Ulrich's figured 
specimen (1889 : 378, fig. 6) is by no means well preserved, it does show a quincuncial 
arrangement on a posterior fragment of the shell, T. montrealensis shows only 
concentric ornament on the single valve described by Billings {1862 : 52, fig, 57) and 
accordingly the position of this species is unknown. 



Trematis sp. 

(PL 4, figs. 3, 4, 8) 

Description. Minute, subcircular, gently and evenly convex dorsal valves 
(BR. 29884-85), lacking fold or sulcus. Well developed crudely quincuncial orna- 
ment, and occasional well-marked growth stages. In the better of the two speci- 
mens, pits are not developed until after the first half millimetre. Anteriorly the 
ornament shows some variation, a hexagonal pattern replacing the typical quincunx 
in places. The quincunx may also be lost laterally, where the pits are larger. 

Dorsal interior with a thickened posterior margin, divided by a broad median 
groove. Length of one incomplete dorsal valve (BB. 29884), 1*4 mm, 

Ventral valve unknown, 



244 THE FAUNA OF THE PORTRANE LIMESTONE 

Discussion. In the rather crude quincuncial pit arrangement , especially with 
the larger, more rounded pits situated laterally, the Portrane shell shows a strong 
resemblance to 7\ ellipiopora Cooper, from the Pratt Ferry formation. The distinc- 
tive feature of the latter is that the pits are normally longitudinally elliptical. Those 
of the Portrane shells are of rather variable outline, but where the pits are elliptical, 
they differ from those of 7\ elliptopora in being transversely elliptical 

Amongst the British species, T. corona Salter occurs in the Cross Fell Corona Beds, 
and forms close to this have been found in the overlying Dufton Shales as high as 
the Actonian Stage (Dean, ig5g : 207). In the corresponding stage in Shropshire 
the genus is represented by 7\ punctata (J. de C. Sowerby) (Dean, 1958 : 223). 
Neither these, nor 7\ craigensis and 7\ siluriana from the Girvan Ordovician (Reed, 
1917 : 818, 819) are close to the Portrane form, as all lack the typical quincuncial 
arrangement of the pits. Only 7\ melliftua Reed from the Balclatchie mudstones 
possesses this type of ornament. 

Twenty-four pits per millimetre were counted along a line oblique to shell growth 
on Reed's figure of this species (1917, pi. 4, fig. ioa). For a Portrane valve a count of 
twenty pits per millimetre was observed, but this attribute certainly varies over the 
shell surface. Thus as far as can be ascertained the two forms are comparable in 
density of ornament, but the quincuncial arrangement is far less variable in 7\ 
melliflua. 

The Portrane shell differs further in lacking the pronounced dorsal sulcus and 
transverse outline of the Balclatchie shell. From the figures of both Reed and of 
Williams {1962, pi. 7, fig. 22} it may be seen that the sulcus is quite clear at the 1 mm. 
growth stage, so that the lack of sulcus in the Portrane shells is not a reflection of 
their much smaller size. 

The nature of the Portrane shells shows that they are quite distinct from the other 
quincuncial species of the genus, but until more complete material is obtained it is 
considered better to regard these shells as Trematis sp. 



Family DISGINIIDAE Gray 

Subfamily ORBICULOIDEINAE Schuchert & Le Vene 

Genus ORBICVLOIDEA D'Orbigny, l8 47 
Orbiculoidea shallochensis Reed 
{PL 3, figs, 3, 7, rx, 16, 17, 24, 25) 

1 861. Discina (Qrbicula), small sp f , Baily, p, il 

i88o t Discina: species undetermined, Badly, p, 825. 

1895. Discina sp. P Sollas, p. 102. 

191 7. Orbiculoidea shallochensis Reed, p. 820, pi, 4, figs. 18-20, 

Description. Subcircular, biconical valves. Ornament of fine, even concentric 
ridges except at the umbones, which are smooth. For the best preserved shell, 



THE FAUNA OF THE PORTRANE LIMESTONE 



245 



counts of these ridges taken over the 1-2 mm. and the 2-5-3-5 n nn, positions anterior 
to the beak, were 16 and 15 per millimetre respectively, showing little increase in 
thickness of the ridges with shell growth. 

Ventral valve with subcentral apex ; lateral profile of posterior surface gently 
convex, and anterior surface gently concave ; evenly conical in anterior profile. 
Pedicle groove broadly lanceolate, extending a quarter of the distance from the 
apex to the posterior margin, with the small foramen restricted to the posterior 
extremity. 

Dorsal valve initially conical, flattening somewhat later, with the apex one fifth 
of the length of the valve from the posterior margin. Lateral profile with a flat or 
slightly concave, relatively steep posterior slope, and a flat, gentler anterior slope ; 
anterior profile a low even cone, flattening laterally. 

Ventral interiors of fragments ascribed to this species show the pedicle tube 
clearly ; little is seen in the dorsal interiors except for two faint, slightly divergent 
raised lines arising at the apex of the valve and continuing anteriorly for a short 
distance (c, 0-5 mm.). 

Dimensions. Dorsal valve (BB. 29887) : length 4-4 mm., width 4-6 mm. 

Discussion. The Portrane shells agree with Reed's specimens from the White- 
house Group, Girvan, in all features described by Reed and those evident from his 
figures (1917, pi. 4, figs. 18-20). The ornament is identical in style and in density 
(a count anterior to the 1 mm. distance from the apex on Reed's figure 19 gives 15 
ridges per millimetre compared with 16 for the Portrane shell ; the valve outline 
and profile are also similar, The dorsal apex is further forward in the figured 
Whitehouse valve (distance from the posterior margin is 24% of the valve length 
as opposed to 20% for the Portrane valve) and the pedicle groove is slightly longer 
in Reed's figure. These differences, however, appear to be well within the limits of 
normal variation and certainly do not merit separating the two forms, especially on 
the small quantity of material available for study. 



Orbiculoidea sp, 

{PL 4, figs. 1, 2, 6) 

One discinid dorsal valve (BB, 29889) is quite distinct from 0. shallochensis , 
differing in the unusual transversely suboval outline. The valve is somewhat broken 
anteriorly, but measurement on a growth line shows the length to be 65% of the 
width. The valve (width 4*2 mm,) is quite deep (0*9 mm,), the maximum thickness 
being just anterior to the apex. The beak itself is directed posteriorly, projecting 
slightly over the steep, flat, posterior slope. Anterior slope convex ; anterior profile 
evenlv convex. 

The ornament is even, as in O. shallochensis, but slightly coarser (13 ridges per 
millimetre anterior to the 1 mm. distance from the apex). Interior with a light 
forked ridge traversing the posterior half from just anterior of the apex to the middle 
of the posterior margin, 



246 THE FAUNA OF THE PORTRANE LIMESTOKE 

Genus SCHIZOTRETA Kntorga, 1848 

Schizotreta concava sp. nov. 
(PI. 4, figs. 5, 9, io, 12-14) 

Diagnosis. Schizotreta of sub-circular outline ; ventral valve conical with convex 
posterior slope ; dorsal valve concave, after short initial convex stage. Dorsal 
apex close to posterior margin ; ornament of rather coarse, concentric growth ridges 
which coalesce in posterior part of valve. 

HoLOTYPE. Dorsal valve (BB. 2g8go) 4-6 mm. long. 

Paratypks. Dorsal valve (BB. 29891) : length 1*4 mm., width 1*4 mm. Dorsal 
valve (BB. 29892) : width 6-i mm. Other ventral fragments (BB. 29893-95), 

Description. Outline suhcircular to slightly elongate, young valves circular (3 
small valves each have a length : width ratio of 100%). Fragments indicate a 
highly conical ventral valve with a convex posterior slope ; pedicle groove short , 
elliptical, listrium grooved medianly. Dorsal valve evenly convex for the first 
millimetre or so, afterwards flattening and becoming concave. Apex close to the 
posterior margin, the distance being 15% of the valve length for each of two adult 
valves, but much less for young valves (e.g. 4, 6, 7%). Apex smooth, an ornament 
of concentric ridges developing and becoming progressively coarser with increased 
growth ; between 1 and 2 mm. anterior to the apex, 12, 13, and 14 ridges were 
counted on three valves ; two valves gave counts of 5, 6 ridges between 3 and 4 mm, 
in front of the apex. The numerous ridges of the anterior of the shell tend to fuse 
together in the posterolateral regions to give the relatively small number of thickened 
ridges between the apex and the posterior margin. 

Only the ridge forming the inner side of the pedicle tube is seen in the interiors 
of the ventral fragments. The tube terminates well inside an unthickened posterior 
margin. 

Dorsal interior with a short lenticular groove situated medianly just inside the 
posterior margin, slightly anterior to which is a narrow arcuate band, apparently 
for muscular attachment. This band is about half the valve width, and possesses a 
pair of deeply inserted muscle pits medianly. In mid-valve, two adductor scars 
unite antero-medianly to produce a V-shaped scar, posterior to which is a faint ridge. 
This ridge also appears on the anterior side where it is bounded by the slightly 
divergent grooves of the vascula media. The punctae of the shell substance are 
clearly seen in the areas away from the muscle scars. 

Discussion. The shells of this species are much thickened, and the internal 
structures obliterated except in one exquisitely preserved young dorsal valve. It is 
on this valve that the description of the interior is based. 

Several of the features of S. concava are to be found in other species, but their 
combination in this species is quite distinctive, S. conica Dwight from the Trenton 
of New York shows similarities in valve profile and in the dorsal interior. It differs 
in having the dorsal beak much farther forward, which means that there is also no 
crushing up of the concentric ridges at the posterior border as in 5, concava 
Dwight's comment on the variability, particularly of the ventral profile, in S, conica 
{1880 : 452) also seems pertinent to S, concava. 



THE FAUNA OF THE PORTRANE LIMESTONE 



247 



The convex posterior slope seen in the ventral valve of S. posteroconvexa Cooper 
(1956), also characterises the Portrane shell. The features of the dorsal valve of 
Cooper's species are not known as it based only on two ventral valves, but the 
ornament is finer and more evenly spaced than in S. concava. The Portrane shell is 
comparable with S. shuleri (Willard) in dorsal outline, position of apex, and in a 
count of 5 ridges per millimetre at 3 mm. from the apex (taken from Cooper, 1956, 
pi, 21, D, fig, 22) ; Willard 1 s species does not show the concavity typical of the Port- 
rane shell, nor has the ventral valve a convex posterior slope. 

5. willardi Cooper from the Pratt Ferry formation is undoubtedly the closest 
known species to the Portrane shell, but not close enough for the possibility of the 
two being conspeeific. Although only fragments of the Portrane ventral valve have 
been recovered, it would appear to be much more convex than the Pratt Ferry 
form ; more definite differences are to be seen in the concentric ridges of the dorsal 
valve, although in outline, profile, and the position of the apex it might be taken for 
S. concava. Whilst the ornament too is of the same general pattern, it is very much 
finer, ir ridges being counted over the 3-4 mm. position in one of Cooper's figured 
dorsal valves, and 10 on another broken valve in about the same position. The 
concentric ridges also arise much later, the valves being smooth for about 2 mm. 
distance from the umbo compared with under 1 mm. for the Portrane valves (eight 
Portrane dorsal valves gave a mean of 079 mm. (var. 0-027) f° r this measurement). 

S. concava may be differentiated from associated species of Orbiculoidea by the 
coarser ridges, valve profiles, and in the case of Orbiculoidea sp., valve outline. 



Schizotreta sp. 
(PI. 3, figs. 18-21) 

One ventral valve (BB, 29896) is separated from 5, concava on account of its 
unusual ornament. There is reason to believe, however, that this is a pathological 
specimen, and it may possibly belong to S. concava. 

The shell is broken marginally but is of subcircular outline, with a straighter 
posterior margin and apex slightly posterior to mid-valve. In profile the posterior 
slope is convex, and the anterior slope concave as in S. concava. The anterior pro- 
file is asymmetrically conical (approximate measurements ; length 5, width 3-5 
and thickness 3 mm.). The pedicle groove is lanceolate, 1-2 mm. long, and represent- 
ing about a third of the distance from the umbo to the posterior margin. 

The ornament consists of strong, narrow, raised ridges separated by wide flat 
interspaces so that there are only 3 ridges per millimetre anterior to the 1 mm. 
distance from the umbo. The interspaces themselves are ornamented by extremely 
fine ridges or growth lines (5 being counted between two of the larger ridges). Some 
of these thicken up as they are traced to the anterior, w T here seven of the stronger 
ridges were counted per millimetre in the t-2 mm. position. Converse to normal 
development, the stronger ridges become closer together towards the margin. A 
deep cleft on one side of the valve suggests that this is a pathological or, at least, 
an injured specimen, 




2 4 8 THE FAUNA OF THE PORTRANE LIMESTONE 

Internally, the pedicle tube is clearly seen, and on either side of its continuation 
into the apex is a pair of deeply impressed almond-shaped adductor scars, aligned 
between the apex and the posterolateral angles. Two faint, narrowly divergent 
ridges are directed anteriorly from the apex, lateral to which is another pair of less 
well defined muscle scars. 



Superfamily CRANIACEA Forbes 

Family CRANIIDAE Forbes 
Genus EOCONVLUS Cooper, 1956 
Eoconulus transversus sp. nov. 
(PI. 3, figs. 4, 8, 12, 13) 

Diagnosis, Small, misshapen, cone-shaped chit i nous valves, umbones slightly 
posterior to mid- valve. Outline transverse, length about two-thirds of width. 
Posterior margin straight, slightly wider than anterior margin, anterolateral and 
posterolateral extremities rounded. Posterior slope steeper than anterior slope in 5 
out of 8 valves ; shallow sulcus in anterior slope. Ornament of concentric growth 
lines, occasionally thrown into strong undulating wrinkles. 

Interior with two large sub-reniform adductor scars situated posterolateral!}^ , 
and extending for half valve length. Short, thickened, tripartite ridge, aligned 
subparallel to margin sometimes seen posteromedianly. 

Ventral valve not known. 

Length Width 

Holotype. BB. 29900 ...... 1.3 mm. 1.75 mm. 

Paratypes, BB. 29901 . , , ... 1,3 mm. 2*2 mm. 

BB. 29902 ..,,... 1.55 mm. 2.3 mm. 

BB, 29903 ,.. , — 1.55 mm. 

Discussion, This interesting genus is known only from the dorsal valve ; the 
ventral valve, which was evidently attached, has not been recovered by either Cooper 
or the present writer. Cooper (1956 : 283) obtained specimens from two horizons 
both older than the Portrane Limestone ; from the Botetourt Formation in Virginia 
and from the Pratt Ferry Limestone of Alabama. The specimens from the former 
locality are the larger and " differently shaped ", but are not good enough for 
description. The second locality yields the one described species, the type species 
E. rectangtilaiiis Cooper, The size of the Portrane shells is similar to that of the type 
species, but the differences between the two forms necessitate the erection of a new 
species for the Portrane shells. 

The following statistical data give a comparison of shell shape for the Portrane 
and Pratt Ferry shells, the dimensions for the latter being taken from Cooper's 
data. 



THE FAUNA OF THE FORTRAN E LIMESTONE 249 

(a) Ratio length ; width of dorsal valves, 

E. transversus sp. n. : — 59, 60, 63, 67, 6g, 74, 77% ; mean = 67% (van 47-0). 
E. rectangulatus Cooper: — 667, 70, 75, 79, 86% ; mean = 75*4% (var. 56*3). 

A Rank Sum Test gives p = 0-053, indicating that although the Portrane shell is 
more transverse than the Pratt Ferry shell, the difference is not significant, p being 
just over the 5% level, 

(b) Ratio height : width of valves. 

£, transversus [—29, 33, 34, 37* 37- 4°> 43* 53% \ mean = 38*25% (var. 53-9). 
E. rectangulatus : — 36, 38, 56, 57, 60 ; mean = 49-4% (var. 55*8). 

A Rank Sum Test indicates p = 0*047, thus the relatively low valves of E> trans- 
versus in transverse profile are significantly different from those of the type species. 

(c) Ratio height ; length of valves. 

E. transversus 1—38, 54, 54, 55, 56, 58, 64% ; mean = 54'i% (var, 62*8), 
E. rectangulatus :— 45, 57, 67, 75, 86% ; mean = 66% (var. 251*0), 

On testing, these figures show no significant difference in the longitudinal profile 
of the two species, 

E m transversus differs from E. rectangulatus in its lower conical transverse profile, 
and in the presence of a median sulcus on the anterior slope of the shell. Six of 
the complete valves show an ornament of simple concentric growth lines, but one 
specimen also has strong undulating wave-like wrinkles. This ornamentation is 
rather similar to that of Undiferina Cooper (1956}. However, there is little doubt 
as to the affinities of this Portrane valve, as another valve shows an intermediate 
stage between it and the more usual type, showing a few wrinkles developed on 
part of the shell only. This irregular surface with variable wrinkles is of course 
typical of many craniaceids. 

Genus ACANTHOCRANIA Williams, 1943 

Acanthocrania was erected as a subgenus of Crania to include u Cranias with dorsal 
valves ornamented by fine papillae or fine spines " (J. S. Williams, 1943 : 71). The 
type species, C, spicutata, is a Carboniferous form, but Cooper ^956 : 283) records 
the genus as being widely distributed and fairly abundant in the Ordovician of North 
America. Gorjansky (i960 : 177) does not record the genus from the U.S.S.R,, but 
there is no doubt that three Estonian forms [von Huene, 1899, Philhedra pustulosa 
(p. 298), P. hemipustnlosa (p. 304) and Craniella papillifera (p. 317)] may be referred 
to this genus as at present defined, 

Neither the genus nor any craniaceid referable to it, have been previously described 
from the British Isles, Although the genus is not common at Portrane, there appear 
to be two distinct forms represented. 

Type species. Crania spiculata Rowley (1908). 



250 THE FAUNA OF THE PORTRANE LIMESTONE 

Acanthocrania cracentis sp. nov. 
(PL 4, figs. 22, 25, 26) 

Diagnosis. Dorsal valve deep, transversely subcircular with straight posterior 
margin. Anterior profile asymmetrically convex ; lateral profile evenly convex 
anterior to beak, steep and gently concave posterior to beak. Maximum valve 
thickness at mid-valve ; beak situated posteriorly, curved over towards posterior 
margin and below greatest height of valve. Ornament of well marked growth lines 
giving somewhat lamellose appearance, and fine spines (those preserved being up to 
0*3 mm. long), exact relation of spines to growth lines being obscured by silicification. 

Interior with pair of large rounded anterior adductor scars (length J of the valve 
length) situated slightly posteriorly to centre of valve and separated by groove along 
which is a low ridge, extending anteriorly. Posterior adductor scars transversely 
oval, about half the length of anterior pair, situated in front of posterior submarginal 
groove, where they are separated by raised median area. 

Ventral valve not known. 

Holotype. BB. 29904 ; length 4-4 mm,, width 5-0 mm., thickness 2*1 mm. 

Discussion, The distinctive lateral profile, with the umbo situated below the 
maximum height and the posterior position of the umbo, serve to differentiate the 
new species from all others except A, spinosa Cooper, The Portrane form differs 
from this species in its much neater form, regular outline, finer spinose ornament 
and clearer concentric ornament. 

Acanthocrania sp. 
(PL 4, figs, ii, 15, 16, 19) 

Description, Three incomplete irregular dorsal valves (BB, 29905-07) of 
sub-rounded outline, gently to strongly convex profile, Apex posterior of mid- 
valve ; posterior slope flat to concave, anterior slope convex. Irregular concentric 
ornament covered by coarse stout spines 0-5 mm. or more in length, Interior with 
a pair of large muscle scars situated posteriorly to the centre of the valve, and 
separated by a smooth groove which develops anteriorly into a ridge. Here it is 
bounded by two impressed areas which bear vascular markings in the form of radiat- 
ing ridges. Width of one incomplete dorsal valve (BB, 29905), 8-8 mm. 

Discussion. Whilst the incomplete nature of these shells (especially posteriorly) 
prevents their specific determination, sufficient features are preserved to distinguish 
them from the associated A , cracentis. 

The shells differ from A. cracentis in possessing a much coarser spinose ornament, 
a very variable and irregular profile, and a beak which is relatively farther from the 
posterior margin and which does not overhang the posterior slope. (It should be 
mentioned that the position of the beak was not established for one valve because 
of its very coarse silicification). 

Internally the groove separating the anterior adductor scars lacks the median 
ridge of A. cracentis, but this does not seem to be a specific character, the variable 
nature of its occurrence being recorded for A, pustulosa by von Huene (1899 : 298), 



THE FAUNA OF THE POKTRANE LIMESTONE 

Genus PHILHEDRELLA Kozlowski, 1929 



z 5 l 



This genus was erected as a subgenus of Philhedra Koken (1889} by Kozlowski 
(1929 : 40) for those forms closely resembling Philhedra but which possess a smooth 
or concentrically ornamented surface, lacking the radial ornament of Philhedra s.s. 

Philhedra was originally placed in the Gastropoda by Koken (1889 : 465; although 
he later (1897 : 112) placed it close to the craniaceid brachiopod Pseudocrania. 
This was accepted by von Huene (1899: 297) , who, although he subdivided the 
species into two groups based on this differing ornamentation, did not rate this 
character as constituting a basis for further generic distinction. Von Huene con- 
sidered the large size of the anterior adductor scars relative to that of the posterior 
adductor scars to be a more important character, this feature differentiating Phil- 
hedra from Peirocrania Raymond ign ($yn. Cmniella Oehlert non Schlotheim, 
1820). 

Kozlowski (1929) sub-divided Koken's genus on the ornamentation, since when 
the name Philhedra has been generally restricted to those shells possessing radial 
ornament (Maillieux, 1936 : 46 ; Cooper, 1944 : 291 ; Gorjansky, i960 : 176). 

Unfortunately the type species of Philhedrella, P. mimeiica, is very inadequately 
known, no information being available on either the ventral valve (which is generally 
thought to be extremely thin or non-existent in the genus (Kozlowski, 1929 : 41 ; 
Cooper, 1956 : 284)) or the all important dorsal interior. Thus the type species is 
just as likely, on present evidence, to belong to Peirocrania as to the smooth Phil- 
hedra, Philhedrella r Re-investigation of the type species may lead to the suppression 
of Philhedrella, in which case a new name w r iH have to be erected for the forms with 
a Philhedra-like interior but a smooth or concentrically ornamented exterior. 

One of the Portrane craniaceid species possesses these characters and is here 
included in the genus Philhedrella, at least until such time as the type species is re- 
investigated. 

Type species, Philhedrella mimetica Kozlowski {1929 : 40). 



Philhedrella celtica sp* nov, 
(Pi 4, figs, 17, 18, 20, 21, 23, 24) 

Diagnosis. Dorsal valve large, sub-conical with long, almost straight posterior 
margin, whose width approaches maximum valve width. Apex unobtrusive, situated 
posterior to mid-valve. Interior with large adductor scars, anterior pair larger than 
posterior pair, which abut upon posterior margin. 

Holotype. BB. 29908. Length about 22 mm. 

Paratype. BB. 29909, Width about 22 mm. 

Description, Large subcorneal dorsal valve, apex situated posterior to mid- 
valve. Anterior profile a low cone ; lateral profile with a gently convex anterior 
slope and flat or gently concave posterior slope, the latter forming a triangular area 
bounded by the straight, but somewhat irregular, posterior margin. Postero- 
lateral angles sharply obtuse, lateral margins gently convex, the curvature increasing 
at the antero-lateral angles to form a straight anterior edge medianly. Valve 




252 THE FAUNA OF THE PORTRANE LIMESTONE 

surface rather uneven, ornamented by fine growth lines and developing irregular 
concentric wrinkles on large shells, 

Dorsal interior with large anterior and smaller posterior pairs of adductor scars , the 
posterior edge of the latter lying on the valve margin. The former are sub-oval 
(width about f of the length), swollen and extending almost a third of the valve 
length in the holotype. They are situated anterolateral! y to the valve apex and are 
well separated by a groove (more than half the width of an individual scar), along 
which is a low ridge. This broadens anteriorly forming a thickened margin to the 
scutellum, from which a median ridge (rostrum) and two less well marked antero- 
lateral ridges project. Posterior adductor scars of subtriangular outline, with the 
apex directed anterolaterally. Width similar to anterior scars, but only half the 
length. Smaller muscle scars situated lateral to these, in the posterolateral corners 
of the shell. The depressed areas on either side of the rostrum show a series of 
parallel pallia! ridges, roughly perpendicular to the margin, which may be traced 
towards the posterolateral angle. 

Ventral valve unknown. 

Discussion. The material consists of three sub-conical dorsal valves, together 
with two other fragmentary specimens. The latter show the same pair of very large 
swollen anterior adductor scars, one being a very low cone with poor concentric 
ornament, the other flatly convex. The broken nature of these shells, which are 
believed to be flattened areas of larger conical valves, prevents their being used in 
the systematic description of the species. 

The Portrane shells are quite distinct from the other Ordovician craniaceids which 
may belong to this genus. One of these is Crania irenionensis Hall, for which figures 
of the diagnostic dorsal interior are unknown to the writer, but which has been 
placed in the genus Pelrocrania by Cooper (1956 : 290). Whether this generic 
assignment is correct or not, the valve outline alone is sufficient to distinguish the 
species from the Irish form, as it lacks the straight posterior margin of the latter, 
and also has its greatest width towards the anterior margin (see Hall & Clarke, 
1892, pL 4, H, fig. 21). 

Of the Estonian forms which have the features of Philhedrella , P, acta (von 
Huene, 1900 : 179) resembles the Portrane shell in its development of a steep, 
triangular posterior surface, but differs in its smaller size, the narrow posterior margin 
relative to valve width and the clearly defined button-like apex. P. glabra has a 
similar profile, but the outline lacks the long posterior margin of P. celiica whilst 
the interior has small, oval posterior muscle scars, situated well inside the valve 
margin. The sole specimen of P. milrata again lacks the distinctive outline of the 
Portrane shell ; von Huene's figure is not very clear (1899, pi. 5, fig. 6) . P. bucculenia 
differs in its sub-central button-like apex and round outline, whilst P. despectata 
also lacks the straight posterior margin and triangular surface posteriorly. 

P. kokeni, which ranges up into the Rakvere stage, resembles P. celiica in size 
and general appearance of the exterior, although of a somewhat more subquadrate 
outline. Internally the differences are very marked, the Estonian form having oval 
posterior adductor scars situated well away from the margin, and anterior ones 
which are " bean -shaped " and which converge anteriorly. 



THE FAUNA OF THE PORTRANE LIMESTONE 



253 



No craniaceid species comparable with P. cdiica are recorded from the British 
Isles. 



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Verk. Russ.-Kais. Min, Ges* St.-Petersb. (2) 36 : 181-359, pls.r— 6, 
geol, 8, 5 £1 



254 THE FAUNA OF THE PORTRANE LIMESTONE 

Huene, F. von 1900, Supplement z\i der Beschreibung der Silurischen Craniaden der 

Ostseelander. V&rh, Russ.-Kais. Min. Ges* Si.-Petersb. (2) 38 : 171-207, pis. 1-3. 
Kqken, E. 1889. Ueber die Entwickehmg der Gastropoden vom Cambrium bis zur Trias. 

N. Jb, Min. GeoL Paldoni., Stuttgart (Beil,-Bd) 6 ; 305-484, pis* 10—14. 
■ 1897. Die Gastropoden dcs Baltischen Untersilurs. Bull. Acad. Sci. St.-Peiersb. {5) 

7 : 97-214. 
Kozlowski, R T 1929, Les Brachiopodes Gothlandiens de la Podolie Polonaise. Palaeont. 

polon., Warsaw, 1 : 1-254, P^ 3 * i-* 2 - 
Kutorga, S. 1848, Uber die Brachiopoden — Familie der Siphon otretaeae, Verh. Russ.-Kais. 

Min. Ges. St-Peiersb. 3 1847 : 250-283, pis. 6, 7. 
La mont, A. 1 93 S, Contemporaneous slumping and other problems at Bray Series, Ordovi- 

cian, and Lower Carboniferous horizons, in County Dublin. Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., 

Dublin, 45, B : 1-25, pis. 1-7. 

1941. Trinucleidae in Eire. Awn. Mag. Nat. Hist., Loudon (ri) 8 ; 438—469, pi. 5. 

Maillieux, E. 1936. La Faune et Page des Quartzophyilades Siegeniens de Longlier. Mem. 

Mus, Hist, nat. Belg. f Bruxelles, 73 : 1-140, pis. 1-3. 
M'Coy, F. 1846, Synopsis of the Silurian Fossils of Ireland. 72 pp., 5 pis. Dublin, 
Medligott, H. B. 1853, On the Geology of Portraine, Co. Dublin. J. GeoL Soc. Dublin, 

5 : 265-276. 
Palmer, A. R. 1955. The Faunas of the Riley Formation in Central Texas. /. Paleont., 

Tulsa, 28 ; 709-786, pis. 76-92. 
Reed, F. R. C. 1897. See under Gardiner, C. I. & Reynolds, S. H. 1897. 
■ 1917. The Ordovician and Silurian Brachiopoda of the Girvan District. Trans. Roy. 

Soc. Edinb.> 51 : 795—998, pis. 1-24, 
Rowell, A. J. 1962. The Genera of the Braehiopod Super families Obolellaeea and Siphono- 

tretacea. /. PaleonL, Menasha, 36 : 136-152, pis, 29, 30. 
Ruedemann, R. 1901. Hudson River beds near Albany and their taxonomic equivalents. 

Bulk N.Y. St. Mus., Albany, 42 ; 489-587. 
Shackleton, R. M. & Harper, J. C. 1940. An occurrence of slumping in the Carboniferous 

Limestone at Lisnaskea, Co. Fermanagh, Northern Ireland. Froc. Roy. Irish Acad., 

Dublin, 46 (Minutes) : 22-24, P^ T - 
Sharfe, D. 1848. On Tr emails t a new genus belonging to the family of Brachiopodous 

Mollusca. Quart. J, GeoL Soc. Land., 4 : 66-69. 
Sollas, W. J. 1895, The Geology of Dublin and its neighbourhood. Froc. GeoL Ass. Land., 

13 : 91-122, pis. 3, 4. 
Stubblefield, C. J. 1939. Some aspects of the Distribution and Migration of Trilo bites in 

the British Lower Palaeozoic Faunas. GeoL Mag, Lond., 76 : 49-72. 
Ulrich, E. O. 1889. On Lingirfasma, a new genus, and eight new species of Lingula and 

Tf emaiis. Amer. GeoL, Minneapolis, 3 : 377-391. 
Williams, A. 1962. The Stratigraphy and Braehiopod Faunas of the Barr and Lower Ard- 

millan Series (Caradoc) of the Girvan district of SW. Ayrshire. Mem. GeoL Soc. Lond., 

3 : 1-267, pl s * I_2 5- 
Williams, J. S. 1943. Stratigraphy and Fauna of the Louisiana Limestone of Missouri. 

Prof. Pap. U.S. GeoL Surv., Washington, 203 : 1-133, P^ s - &™9- 
Wilson, A. E. 1946. Brachiopoda of the Ottawa Formation of the Ottawa-St. Lawrence 

Lowland. Bull. GeoL Surv, Can. t Ottawa, 8 : 1-149, pis. 1-11. 





PLATE i 

Lingulella sp. I . , . . . p, 230 

Figs, i, 2, Interior and exterior of dorsal valve, BB. 28219, X12, 

Figs, 3, 4. Interior and exterior oi dorsal valve, broken anteriorly. BB. 28220. X12. 

Lingulella sp. 2 . . . . , .p. 230 

Figs, 5, 6. Interior and exterior of dorsal valve, BB, 28221, Xi2'3 and 13*2 respectively, 

Lingulella sp, 3 . . . . . p. 231 

Figs, 7, 13. Interior and exterior of a broken ventral valve, the latter showing fine growth 
lines with a stronger concentric line at regular intervals on one side of the shell. BB, 28222, 
X8'5. 

RowslleUa minuta gen. et sp. no v. . . , . p. 233 

Figs. 8, 14, 15. Anterior, internal and lateral views of incomplete dorsal valve, Paratype, 
BB. 28226, X26. 

Figs. 9-1 i, 16, Ventral, dorsal, lateral and posterior views of the holotype, BB, 28223. x 27. 

Figs. 12, 17-19. Ventral, posterior, lateral and dorsal views of paratype, BB. 28224. X27. 

Figs. 20, 21, 27, 28, Posterior, anterior, infernal and external views of incomplete dorsal 
valve* Paratype, BB. 28228. X12. 

Figs. 22-24, Lateral, external and internal views of incomplete dorsal valve, Paratype, 
BB, 28225. X26, 

Figs, 25, 26. External and internal views of incomplete dorsal valve. Paratype, BB. 28227, 
X 14. 

A canihambonia portranensis sp. nov. . . . p. 231 

Fig, 29. Interior of dorsal fragment. Paratype, BB, 29863. xi2*5. 

Figs. 30, 31. Exterior and interior of ventral valve. Holotypc, BB, 29860. xg*7. 



Bull. B.M. (N.H.) Geo!. 8, 5 



PLATE i 




21 






27 



28 



29 





30 



31 




PLATE 2 

Leptobolus rants sp. nov. . . . , p, 232 

Figs, i, 2. Interior and exterior of incomplete ventral valve. Holotype, BB, 28229. X i6'5. 

Pateritla cf. perfecta Cooper . . . , p. 235 

Figs. 3, 4, g, 16. Four fragmentary ventral valves showing the muscle and pallia! markings 
of the valve interior. BB. 29864-67. Figs. 3, 4x15 ; Figs. 9, 16x20, 

Fig. 5. Interior of a dorsal valve, muscle scars not prominent, BB, 29868. X 11*5. 

Fig. 8. Interior of an older dorsal valve, muscle field well developed. BB. 29869, xio'5. 

Figs, io, 13. Internal and external views of an almost complete ventral valve. BB, 29870. 
Xi2. 

Scaphdasma} sp. . , . . p. 240 

Figs, 6, 7. Exterior and interior of dorsal valve, BB, 29883, X 19. 

Spondylotreta cf. paroa , . . . p. 239 

Figs, it, 15. Dorsal fragments showing the features of the interior. BB. 29879, BB. 29880. 
x6, x 6*5 respectively. 

Figs. 12, 14. Ventral umhonal fragments, tin former showing pronounced pallial markings, 
BB. 29877, BB. 29878, X6, Xii*4 respectively. 

Figs, 18, 19. Interior and exterior of a damaged dorsal valve. BB. 29881 . x6*3, 

Spondylotreta pan) a sp. no v. . . . . p. 238 

Figs. 17, 20, Exterior and interior of a dorsal valve. Paratype, BB. 29873, xi5"6. 

Figs. 21, 25, Lateral and posterior views of a ventral valve, damaged marginally. Paratype, 
BB. 29874. x i4"6. 

Figs, 22—24. Ventral, oblique and lateral views of a damaged dorsal interior to show the 
muscle scars and strong median septum, this being slightly broken anterior to its apex. Para- 
type, BB, 29872. Xi5"4- 



Butt. B.M. (N.H.) Geol. 8, 5 



PLATE 2 






10 







i^^Bf^ y 'ilr * 


MM 1 


^ 










(6 




r riff 


i'!*f 1 


" ' 



18 



19 





20 





13 








17 




21 




22 



23 



24 



25 



PLATE 3 

Spondylotreta parva sp, nov. ..,„., * p, 238 

Figs, 1, 5, 9, 15. Four views of the interior of the ventral valve to show the nature of the 
apical structures and pallial markings, Holotype, BE, 29871. X24. 

Ephippelasma} sp. ..... p, 240 

Figs. 2, 6, io p 14. Anterior, posterior, apical and lateral views of ventral valve. BB. 29882. 

Orbicitloidea shaHochensis Reed . , , p, 244 

Figs. 3, 7, it. Lateral, ventral and dorsal views of incomplete pair of valves. BB, 29886. 
X6. 

Figs. 16, 17, 25. Interior and exterior of a dorsal valve. BB. 29887. X3"5, and an enlarge- 
ment of the interior, X4"S. 

Fig, 24. Interior of ventral fragment, showing pedicle tube. BB. 29888. x6*2. 

Eoconutus transversits sp, nov, , , * • p. 248 

Fig. 4. Interior of dorsal valve. Holotype, BB. 29900. xn. 

Figs, 8, 12, 13. Antero-dorsal, dorsal and posterior views of a dorsal valve. Paratype, 
BB. 29901. xxi 7. 

Schizoireia sp. , . . . « p. 247 

Figs. 18-21. Lateral, oblique, ventral and internal views of a ventral valve. BB. 29S96. 

X3'3- 

Mullispinula sp. 1 . , « , , p, 241 

Fig, 22. Incomplete ventral valve showing characteristic foramen. BB. 29897, X21. 
Fig. 23. Fragment of anterior part of a valve, showing ornamentation. BB. 29898. x6*6. 



ButL B.M. (N.H.) Geo!. 8, 5 



PLATE 3 









10 







4 




8 




12 




(3 




14 




is 




22 




15 




19 





16 




20 




24 




17 




21 




25 



PLATE 4 

Orbiculoidea sp. .,..., p, 245 
Figs, i, 2, 6. External, lateral and internal views of dorsal valve. BB. 29889. x6. 

Trematis sp. , . . # p. 243 

Figs. 3, 8. Exterior and interior of incomplete dorsal valve. BB. 29884, x 12*8. 
Fig. 4. Exterior of a dorsal fragment. BB, 29885. Xiyz. 

Schizotreta concava sp, no v. , . , ♦ , p, 246 

Figs. 5, io, 14. Interior and exterior of a small dorsal valve, BB. 29891, x 10, and an 
enlargement of the interior, X15. Paratype. 

Fig, 9. Exterior of dorsal valve. Holotype, BB. 29890. Xyj* 

Fig, 12. Exterior of dorsal valve. Paratype, BB. 29892* X2*y. 

Fig. 13. Interior of ventral fragment showing pedicle tube. Paratype, BB. 29893. X39, 

MuUispinula sp. 2 . , « , p, 242 

Fig. 7. Fragment of a valve showing ornamentation. BB. 29899. xio'8 + 

Acanthocrania sp. , . , . p. 250 

Fig. 11. Exterior of broken dorsal valve. BB. 29906. X2"5- 

Figs. 15, 16. Anterior and dorsal views of incomplete dorsal valve. BB. 29905, X2, 

Fig. 19. Interior of incomplete dorsal valve. BB, 29907. xi'9. 

Acanthocrania cracentis sp. nov, . . , , p. 250 

Figs. 22, 25, 26. Internal, lateral and external views of dorsal valve. Holotype, BB, 29904. 

Philkedrella celtica sp. nov. . . . . p. 251 

Figs. 17, 18, 21. Dorsal, lateral and internal views of dorsal valve. Holotype, BB, 29908. 

XI'2. 

Figs, 20, 23, 24. Internal, lateral and dorsal views of a dorsal valve. Paratype, BB. 29909. 
XI m 4* 



Bull. B.M, (N.H.) Geol. 8, 5 



PLATE 4 









j- 














10 



8 




II 




15 





12 




16 




%&£*!&' 



20 




!3 




17 





14 




18 




22 



19 



21 




23 






24 



25 



26 



INDEX TO VOLUME VIII 

New taxonomic names and the page numbers of the principal references are printed in Bold type. 

An asterisk (*) indicates a figure. 



A canthambonia 229, 231 

minutissima 232 

portranensis 231 ; PL i, figs. 29-31 

virginiensis 232 
Acanthamboniinae 231 
Acanthocrania 229, 249 

cracentis 250 ; PL 4, figs. 22, 25, 26 

pustulasa 250 

sp. 250 ; PL 4, figs n, 15, 16, T9 

spinosa 250 
Acanlhocythere 195 

faveolata 195, 196 ; PI. 7, figs. 5-13 ; PL 8, 
figs. 1-5 

sphaerulata 196 
A canthothiris crossi Bed 177, 178 
Acasiella spinosa 123 
A centrophonts 317 

varians 312, 313. 316*. 317 
Acipenser 307, 315 

sturio 300 
Acrolepidae 260, 271, 318 
Acrolepis 273 

sedgwicki 271 

sp, 272 
Acropholis 260 
Acrotrela 229 
Acrotretacea 237, 350 
Acrotretidae 237 
Acrotretinae 237 
Actinophorus 299 

clarhi 297, 299, 300 
Actinopterygians 307! 319 
A edua 290 
Aetheolepis 39 
A gat his So, 87 
Aldingeria 297 
Amblypteridae 290 
Amblypterina 290 
Amhlypterops 290 
Amblypterus 258, 265, 266, 284-286, 290, 291 

agassizii 285 

duvemoyi 285, 293 

elegans 286 

elongatus 286 

eupterygius 285 

gracilis 286 



lateralis 291 

laius 286, 291, 292*, 293 

macro pier us 285 

ofnatus 285 

regeiii 2 86 

sp. 285, 291 

striatus 266, 285 

traqitairi 285 
American Museum of Natural History 258, 300 
Amiau, 307, 314 

cafr;a 264, 316*, 317 
.\mioidea317 
Amphicentridae 317 
A mph i stroph ia funiculata 157 
Anisopleurella 341, 343 
Apateolepis 299 
Aphnelepis 39 
^rawcaria 70, 80 , 86, 89 

columnar is 89 
Araucariaceae 47, 69, 8o, 8$, 86, 87, 89 
Archaeomaene 39 
Archaeomaenidae 38, 39 
Archangelsky, S. 45-92 
Atcheoniscits 290 
Argentina, Santa Cruz 47 
A sciacythere 183, 207 
Aspidorhynchiformes 4, 38 
Aspidorhynchoidea 317 
Athroiaxis 85, 86 

cupressoides 85, 86 

urageri 47, 80, 83, 84*, 85, 87 ; PI. 6, fig. 35 ; 
PL 7, fig, 42 ; PL 10, figs* 67-69 ; PL 12, 

fig* 7* 
Atrypa reticularis 101 , 105, 106, 108, 11 2-1 18, 

125, 126, 129, I3 T > 134* J 3 6 > ifB, M - H 1 * 
143, 145,150 
Aulacocythere 198, 199* 

punctata 198, 199, 200 ; PL 9, figs. 4-9, n, 

12, 14, 15 
reticulata 199, 200 ; PL 9, figs, 10, 13, 16-25 I 
PL 10, fig. 1 
Ausirophuropholis 38, 39 
Aymestry Limestone 98-100 

Bairdia 187 
cur (its 187 



INDEX 



fulhnica 188, i8g 

Hilda 1 88, 189 ; PL 2, figs. 9-12 ; PL 3, figs, 1-4 

Bairdiacea 187 
Bairdidac 187 
Bancrofiina 337, 342, 410 

robusta 411 

sp. 41 ; PL 7, figs. 19-23 

fy pa 411 
Bate, R. H. 173-219 
Beltarinea 87 
Bellimurina 34 1, 343, 466 , 467 

cone en trie a 467 

incommoda 466 ; PL 16, iigs. 6, 7, 10-14 

sulcata 467 
£f f wi 6 e# i a lloydi 145, 146 
Beyrichia Moedeni var, torosa 116, 117, 121, 134, 

x 35 

sp, 131, 143 

torosa 101 
Bicuspina 342, 344, 424-426 

cava 426 

multicQsiellaia 426 

spiriferoides 337, 424 , 426 ; PL 10, figs. 3-10 
Birgeria groenlandica 300-302, 311, 312, 313*, 

314,315,318* 

mougeoH 302 

Birmingham University 158 

Bobasatrania mahavica 309* 

Bobasatraniidae 317 

Bootle Museum 304 

Boreosomus 36 

Brachyphylltmi 47, 69, 70, 77, 80 , 83, 85 

brettii 47, 70, 71, 72, 74, 76, 88 ; PL 7, figs. 
37, 38 ; PL 8, figs, 47-50 j PL 9, figs, 37, 
38 ; PL 12, fig, 74 
crueis 83 
expansutn 70 

var. indica 8$ 
irregulare 47, 70, 81, 81* , 8$ ; PL 7, fig. 44 ; 
PL 8, figs. 56, 57 ; PL IG, fig, 65 ; PL 12, 

% 77 
mamiilare 70, 8 o 

mirandai 47, 70, 72, 74, 75*, 76, 77, 78*, 8o, 

83 ; PL 7, figs. 41, 45, 46 ; PL 8, figs, 53-55 ; 

PL 9, figs, 61, 62 ; PL 12 fig, 76 
mucronatum 47, 72, 73*, 74, 88 ; PL 7, fig. 

43 ; PL 8, figs. 51, 52 ; P], io, fig. 66 ; 

PL 12, fig. 75 
Br achy prion 101 

sp. iio fc 1x2-114, 128, 131, 134, 141 

Bringewood Beds in, 112, 114, 115, 128, 131, 

133- !3S, 141, H3> i47" J 5o 
Bringewoodian Stage 140-142 
Broeggerolithus harnagensis 339 
Broken Beds, Lower Purbeck y~5 
Br cut g hi a 34 

Bucanopsis expansus 126, 145 
Buffalo Museum 298 
liythok ypris sp, 1 15 



Bythocy there aliena 189 
Bytkocy ih eri dae 1 8 9 



Calymene 1 26 

neointermedia ioi, 117, 118, 125, 126, 129, 131, 
145, 147,149 

sp. 104, 105, 134, 136, 141 
Camarotoeckia nucula 101, 113-118, 121, 125, 

126, 129-131, i34- r 3 6 * *3 8 > H*> H3^ J 45. 14^ 

150 
Cambridge Museum of Zoology 258, 304 

Camptoeythere 201 

lincolnensis 201, 202 ; PL 10, figs. 2-13 

praecox 201 
Campylites 157 

Canada Geological Survey 306 
Candona bononiensis 5 
Canobius elegantulus 308, 309*, 310 

ramsayi 3 1 1 * 
Caradocian brachiopoda 327 
Caturus 36, 37 

driani 316*, 317 
Cay ton ia 69 

Ceramurus macrocephalus 5, 6 
Chaniaecy parts pi si f era 85 
Chasmops sp. 340 
Cheirolepidae 303 
Cheirolepis 258, 265, 303 

canadensis 306*, 307 

cummingiae 303, 304 

eurtiis 303 

macrocephalus 303 

muensteri 70, 72, 77, 80 

sp, 304 

fratiti 263, 264, 296, 303, 304, 305, 307, 308, 310 

^agwj 303, 304 

yg/ojtf 303 
Chilidiopsis 157 
Chirocentridae 25 
Chondrostei formes 299, 300, 318 
Chondfosteus 300 

acipenseroides 300, 302 

kindenburgi 300-302 
Chonetes lepisma 101, no, 112, 114, 115, 117, 118, 

125, 1 2G, 128, 129, 134, 138, 141, 143 

minimus ioG, 133, 141 
Chonetoidea grayi ioi, 104, 106-108, no, nr p 

117, 118, 126, 128, 131, 134, 145, 149-151 
Cladophlebis 47, 49, 81 
Classopollis iorosus 80 
Cleiihrolepis granulata 311*, 312 
CI i t am bon itacea 428 
Clitambonites 428 
Clifambonitidae 428 
Coelosphaeridium Beds 464 
Commenlrya 290 
Commentryidae 290 
Conchidium knighti 10 1, 113, n$ t 125, 126, 128, 

1^9. 13 1 . *34 f 13S, 143 



INDEX 



475 



Zone ioOj 143 

Limestone 98 
Coniterales 69 
Conotreta 22Q, 237, 239, 241 

concentrica 241 

davidsoni 237 

Carnuboniseus budensis 311*, 312 

Corntdites serpuiarius 114, 117, 123, 131, 133, 135 

Cosmopoma 290 

Cosmo pty child a e 259, 318 

Cosmoptyckius 258, 259, 261, 264, 265, 266, 285 

stviatus 266, 268*, 270*, 310-312, 313 
Crania 249 

aniiquissima 345 

spiculata 249 

£rewfo»e*ms 252 
Craniacea 248, 345 
Craniella 251 

papiliifera 249 
Craniidae 248, 345 
Craniops 347, 348 

attenuata 348 

implicata 114, 123, 129, 135, 143, 145 

wzircor 348 

par aria 347 

squamiformis 347 

tenuis 348 

trentonensis 348 
Craniopsidae 346 
Cremnorthidae 377 
Cremnorthis 331, 34 1, 34 3 , 378 

parva 378, 379, 380* ; PL 4p figs, 15-23 
Crypiomeria So, 86 r 87 

japonica 89 
Cryptothyris 343 
C tents 49, 61 

kaneharai 61 

minuta 61 
C Unapt ens 62 

Ctenathrissa radians 314, 316*, 317 
Ciena samites 62 

rycarfea 62 

leckenbvi 62 

Cuneocytherinae 207 
Cupressaceae 80 , 85 
Citpressus sempervirens 85 
Cycadales 48, 49, 60 
Cyt#s 51, 60 

revoluta 49, 51 
Cyclonema coralli 145 
Cyclopiychius 269 
Cydospira 341, 343, 468, 469 

hi sulcata 469 

sp.468 ; PL 16, fig. 18 
Cyclospiridae 468 
Cypricardinia planulaia 114. 134, 

spp. 112 

subplanata 114 
Cypridacea 186 



Cypridea granulosa 5, 6 
Cypris purbeckensis 5 
Cyrtia ex par recta 1 04 , 133 
Cyj'toctfm.s Mud stone 1 5 1 
Cyttograp tus lu n dgre ni Zone 141 
C yrtonotella 341 , 343 
Cytheracea 176, 180, 189 
Cy there sphaerulata 195 
Cyiherella 183, 184 

caienulata 1S4 

fullonica 184 ; PL r, figs. I, 2 

zar t/f * iiffls om a w a 1 8 4 
Cy t here 11 idae 183-185 
Cytherelloidea 184 

caienulaia 184, 185 ; PL 1, figs. 3-6 
Cyiheridea subirigona 207, 208*, 209 ; PI. 12, 

figs. 12-16 ; PL 13, figs, 1-9 

&Mstf 189 
Cytherideidae 205, 207 
Cytherideinae 205, 207 
Cytkerina ovaia 183 
Cytkeromorpha 216 

greetwellensis 216 ; PL 15, figs. 19-21 
Cytherur a 216 

Hesbergensis 216 



Dacrvdium 87, 90 

araucanoides 89 

balansae 89 

gibbsiae 89 
Dalmanella 337, 341, 344, 380, 381, 382 

harder ley e n s i s 3 3 7 , 381, 38 2 

^(£^337,381-385 

fe£ta 381 

lunata 157 

modica 380, 382-385 ; PI. 4, figs. 24, 25 ; 
PL 5, figs. 1-7 

arbicularis 157 

sp. 1 1 8, 136, 145 
Dalmanellacea 380 
Dalmanellidae 380 
Dalmanites caudatus 104 

myops 101, 104-108, 110-114, 128, 131, 133, 
136, 140, 141 
Dapedium politum 316*, 317 
Dawsonoceras annulatum 104 
Dayia navicula 98, 10 1, 107, 112—118, 120, 121 f 

125, 126, 129-131, 134, 138, 141, 143, 145, 146, 

Zone ioo, 143 
D i aphorogn a thus g i Uioi 1308, 309* 
Dicoelosia bitoba roi p 104, 106, 108, 136, 147 
Dinorthidae 363 
Dinorthis 330, 341, 342. 344, 363, 365 

berivynensis 334, 335, 339, 364, 365-369, 391 ; 
PL 3, figs, g, 6, 9, 10 

angusta364, 365-369, 435 ; PI 3, figs. 7, 8, 
11-14 



476 



INDEX 



fiabetlulum&& l 365-368 ; PI. },hgs r 1-4 
Dioon 60 

edule 49, 5 1 
Dipteroma 290 
Discinasp. 244 
Discinacea 242 
Disciniidae 244, 350 
Diselma at chef i 85 
Dolerorthidae 357 
Doierorthis 341, 342, 357, 363 

dufto n ensi 535 8—3 b o 

prolixa 357, 358^361 ; PL 2, figs. 6, S- 13 

rustica 104, 105 

sp. 361, 362* • PL 2, figs. 14-16 
Dolocy there 205 

maculosa rRi*, 205, 206 ; PL 12, figs. 1-11 

vara 205, 206 
Down ton Bone Bed 135 
Downtonian Stage 146 



Eoproteiopus 32 

Eospirifer plicatellus 106, 113 

radiatus 105, 113, 128, 131 

sp. 1 01 
Ephippelasma 229 

niinuium 240 

sp. 240 ; PL 3, figs. 2, 6, 10, 14 



Fabandla bononiensis 5 
Fardenia pecten ioi, 112, 131, 157 
Favosites 105, 114, 128, 134, 149 

asper 140 

gothlandicMs 101, 113 

Fuchsella amygdalina 101, n 6, 118, 121, 123, 125, 

126, 129, 130. 134. *35> t-1%, 145* M6 
Fukrbergiella 197 

arens 197, ig& ; PL 8, figs. 6-15 ; PL q f 
figs. 1-3 



EktyphocythereJIS, 214 

iriangula 182*, 214, 215 ; PL 15, figs. 5-18 
E la tides 87 

hommeri 90 

williamsoni go 
Flatocladus 87, go 

areolatus 90 

heievophylla 90 
El aver ia 290 

Elonichthyidac 259, 284, 290, 318 
Elomchthys 259, 260, 261, 263, 265-267, 271, 27 j, 

275, 284, 286, 291 

aitkeni 271, 272, 318 

germari 259, 261 

macropterus 289, 290 

pecHnatus 260, 261 

/? u Icherri m us 261 

robisoni 298 

serrafus 261, 301 

striatus 261, 266 
Elopidae 314 

EJg^s spurns 314, 316*, 317 
Elton Beds 105, 106, 109, 128, 133, 136, 139-141, 

148, 149 
FacrinuYus punctatus 158 

sp. ioi. 117, n8, 125, 126, 129, 131, 143 

stubblefieldi 158 

tuberculatum X58 
/: ? j ite/tf /> Aj'/f h m # r H c ulatum 105 
liooonulus 2 2Q r 248 

rectangulatus 248, 249 

transversus 248, 249 
Eftplertndonfa 341, 344, 448 

acuminata 451 

/riMj 45 1 

rhombica 448, 449-451 ; PI. 12, figs, 9-14, 

tS, 19 
scmirugata 451 



Galliaeeytheridea 207 

Gardiner, B. G. 255-325 

Geological Survey & Museum 272, 304, 453 

Geomichthys 290 

Glassiasp. ioi, 106, 108 

Gleichenites 47 

Glossellinae 232 

Glos sort his 341, 343 

Glyptomena 341, 454, 455 

osloensis 454, 455 ; PL 13, figs. 5, 6, 8, 9 

sculpturala 454 
Glyp fort his 343 

Goniophora cymbaeformis 101, 118, 129, 135 
Goihograptus nassa 104, 133, 141 
Griffith, J. 1^43 
Guy '5 Hospital Medical School 40 
Gymnospermae 48 
Gypidula 129 

gateata 105, 106, 140 

lata 101 , 112-114, 128, 131 

sp. 143 



Malecostomi 4, 6, 32, 33, 38 

Holy s i les eaten u lari us 106 

Haptolepis tuber cidala 308, 309*, 315, 318* 

Harknessella 337 

Harknesscllidae 411 

llausmannia 47 

Nedstroemina 337, 341, 460, 461 

paw a 46 1 

sp.460 ; PL 14, figs, n, 12 
Heliolites inter stinctus ioi, 105, 113, 140 
Hemsiella maccoyana 104, 106, 107, 114, 133, 136, 

140 

Hesperorihis 35^ 



INDEX 



477 



Heterorthidae 417 

Heterortkina 343 

Heterorthis 341, 342, 344, 417 

alternata 418, 420-423 ; PL g t figs. 1— 6, 8, g 
retrosistna 334, 335, 337-339, &5, 419, 420 423, 
435 ; PL g, figs. 7, 10-17 

Hibaldstow Oolite 177 

Holland, C. H. 93-171 

Holocentridae 314 

Holopelia 148, 157 

Holostei 4 

Homalonotus knighti 101 , 121 

Hoplopieryx si nus 3 1 4, 316*, 317 

Hovderleyella 33 7 t 341 

HomelleUa elegans ioi, ro6, io8 P 112, 114, 123, 

13?. r 33- !35> MS- J 4 6 
Howelliies 330, 342, 386, 3 8 7~3 8 9. 390, 391 -395 p 
404 
aniiquior 337-339, 34 ^ 389, 39o> 39 2 -4°4- 

459 ; PL 6, figs, 13-19 ; PL 7, figs, i, 2, 5, 6 
intermedia 342, 388, 390-404 ; PL 6, figs. 1 g 

expectaia 387, 390-404 
striata 342, 386, 387, 390 404 ; PL 5, figs, 8-18 

lineata 387, 388, 390, 392 -404 
ultima 335, 342, 362, 388, 389 404 ; PL 6, 

figs, 6-12 

I chthyokentema 3, 7, 31, 32-34, 37, 38 
brevis 7, 31 
purbeckensis 3-6, 7, 9*, 10*, 12*, 14*, 16*, 18*, 

20+-22*, 24*. 25* f 27*, 28*, 30*, 31, 33. 

3*3*. 3*4 
Ichthyokentemidae 6, 33, 38 

Inarticulate brachiopods 22^, 229 

Isorthis orbicularis ioi, 11 2-1 15, 117, 125, i2(\ 

128, I2Q ? 134, 138, T43, 150 

Juniperits chinensis 85 

Kentmkia 35, 264, 294 

deani 295, 296, 307, 308, 309*, 310 
Kiaevomena 343, 464. 465 
Kioniceras angidatum in. 129, 134, 145 
Kirton Cementstone Series 177, 1 78 
Kirtonella 209, 211 

plicata 182*, 210 P 211 ; PL 13, figs, 10-19 I 
PL 14, figs, 1-6, ii, 12 
Kirtonellinae 176, 209 
Kjaerina 337, 34 1 > 460, 461 

hordeyhyensis 461 
Kjerulfina 343 
A'to e #?fj iawilche nsi ana 14ft 
Kloucekia apiculata 340 
Ktalenia 47, 67, 69 

circularis 48, 67, 68* ; PL 6, figs, 28-33 
Kitllervo 341, 343 

Lawnia taylorensis 311, 312, 313* 
LawsoNj J. D. 93-171 



Lei nt war dine Beds ioo 4 115-120, ijjj, 126, 129, 

131, T34 P 138, 141, 143, 1 45-151 
Leiolepis 284, 290 
Lepidotes semiserratus 316*, 317 
Lepisosteus 314 

osseus 316*, 317, 318 
Leptaena 342, 344, 461, 463, 464, 

charlottae 466 

bjemlfi 4M, 465 ; PL 16, figs 1-5, 8 

rhomboidalis 101 1 105, 106, 108, 112-115, 117, 
118, 125, 126, 128, 129, I3i> IJ3. 134. raft 
138, 140, 141, 143, 145 

rugosa 461, 464 

salopiensis 461 r 463, 404 ; PL 15, figs. 7, 8, 
10-16 

sericea 430 

var. re strict a 451 

spiriferoides 424 

veldrensis 464 

ventricosa 462, 463, 464 ; PL 15, figs, 1-6, g 

Leptaenidae 461 

Leptellinidae 428 

Leptesiiina 341. 342, 344, 428, 430 

derfetensis 430 

o&piki 339, 428 ; PL io, figs. 15, 16, 19-21 

prautii 428 
Leptobolus 229, 232 

rustgnis 233 

rams 232, 233 ; PL 2, figs. 1, 2 

Leptolepidae 38 

Leptolepi formes 4, 32, 38, 40 

J.eptolepis 12, 15, 25, 26, 32, 34 

iifncana $& 

brodiei 5, 6 

cofyphaenoides 13, 22 
Leptostvophia filosa 101, 1 12, 114, 129, 131 
Ligulella slay si 40 
Liguleitidae 38, 40 
Lillo Institute 47 
Lincolnshire Limestone 1 76 1 78 
Lingula davisii 344 

lata 107, no, n6 d 118, 133, 138 

lewisi 114, 128, 143, 145 

minima 146 

sp. 128, 134-136, 15° 
Lingutella 229, 230, 233, 343, 344 

ovata 344, 345 ; PL 1, figs. 1-^ 

sp, 1, 230, 231 ; PL 1, figs. 1-4 

sp, 2, 230, 231 ; PL 1, figs. 5, b 

sp, 3. 231 ; PL i t Iigs. 7, 13 

virgmiensis 231 
Lingulcllinac 230, 344 
Linoporellidae 423 
Liospira striaiissima 112, 113 
Liiuiies ibex 1 40 
Longhope Beds 149 
Longvillia 453 

grandis 452 
Lophodentina 205 



47 8 

lacuna $a 20G 
Loxoconchtdac 216 
Loxonema 148, 157 

sp- 123, 135 
Ludlow Bone Bed 125, 135, 146, 150 

Ludlovian Series 147 

Lul worth Cove, Dorset 3, 4 



INDEX 



Macroeoelia 337, 34 I_ 343> 455 > 45 8 

expansa 455, 456*, 458-460 ; PI. i-% figs. 7, 

10-14 ; PI. 14, figs i\ ^: 5 
o6gs# 455 
prolata457, 45S-460 ; PI. 14, figs. 3, 4, 6-10 

Madariscus 39 

Majohia brasseuri 39 

MajpfciMae 38, 39 

Marionites 337, 343 I 

Ma stop ova Beds 464 

Mesodescolea 47, 48, 59, 6o p 61 

plicata 56*, 58*, 59, 60 ; PL 3, figs. 12-14 ; 
PL 5, figs. 24, 25 
Mesonichthys 258, 271, 273, 318 

aiikeni 271, 272, 274*, 31 1> 3^- 3*3* 
Mesopoma pule helium 293 
Mesosingeria 47, 61, 62 

coriacea 58*, 61 r 62, 63*. 64*. 65, 66 ; PL 3, 

fig. 10 ; PL 5, figs, 22,23 
herbstit 58*, 63*. 6 4l 65 p 66 ; PL 3, fig 1 1 ; 
PL 5, figs. 26, 27 ; PL 6, fig^ 36 
Michelinoceras builatum rot, 121, 123, 129, 134, 

145 

ibex 134 

tinbricatum ioi, 121, 123, 125, 134, 135, M 6 

sp. 108, in, 13°, M5 
ten uiann ulat u m 133 

Microbiota decussata 85 
Microcachrys tetragons, 85 
Modiolopsis complanata 135, 146 
Monoceratina 189 

scrobiculata 190 ; PL 4, figs. 1-4 

sp. 190 ; PL 4, figs. 1-4 

ventmle 189 

tftifra 189 
Monograptus chimaera 100, 101 

colonus 107 

var, compactus 148 

comis 107, 133 

dubius 104, 107, 133, 141 

tgintwardinensis 98, 101, 102, 115-118, 125, 

126, 129, 145 

incipiens 101, 113 
nilssoni 101, 107, 109, 128, 150 
&camcw£ 101, 107, 128, 150 

sp, *33- 143 

lumescens 98, 107, log, no, 128, 133, 141, 14& 

var. orhaius 107-109, 149 
zaHaws 107, ni ( 148 
vulgaris qj, 104, 136, 141, 150 



Moyfhomasia 258, 294, 295, 297-299 

antiqua 298 

devonica 297. 299 

laevigata 299 

mtirfa 295, 298, 3 10 . 3 11 * 3 I2 > 3 J 3* 

perforata 295, 297 
Multispinula 229, 241 

cuneatum 241 

sp. 1. 241 ; PL 3, figs. 22, 23 

sp. 2. 242 ; PL 4, lig, 7 
Murchisonia sp. 

Namaichtkys schroederi 264 
Nematoptychius 258, 266 P 276 

gracilis 276, 277 

greenochi 269, 276, 277, 278*, 279*, 283*, 284, 

288, 297, 3", 312. 3 X 3* 
Nemogr aptus gracilis 339 
Neobeyrichia tattensis 101, 117, 120, 126, 129, 134, 

147, 149, 151 
Neocv there 213 

sp. 214 
Nicolella ^o t 341, 342, 344, 352, 354 

actowia* 352, 353*. 354~35 6 i PL *- fi 8 s - l 5~ 1 9 

obesa 354, 355, 35^ I P1 2 - fi g s - I "5- 7 
Nodop hth a I m ocyt h ere 207 
Nuculites sp, io8 J 121, 123 

Obolacea 230, 344 
Obolidae 230, 344 
Oligocythereis wood war di 200 
Oligopleuridau 38 
Onniella 341, 344, 404, 405 

avelinei 405 

broeggeri 405, 408, 410 

ostentata 335, 405, 407-410 ; PL 7, figs. 3, 4, 

7-1 1, 16 

reuschi 405 

soudleyensis 335, 337- 339. 406, 4°8-4T° I 
PL 7, figs- 12-15, x 7* lS 
Orbicula forbesi 350 

sp. 244 

terminalis 243 
Orbiculoidea 229, 244, 247, 350 

rugata 123. 129, 143, 145 

shallochensis 230, 244, 245 ; PL 3- figs* 3* 7* 

I £, l6, 17, 24, 25 

sp. 245, 247. 350 ; PL i, fig^ 9 , PL 4. fi g s - T - 
2, 6 
Grbiculoideinae 244 
Orthacea 350 
Ortkamboniies 341, 343. 350, ^$2 

bra chiopho rus 352 

cessata350 ; PL 1, figs, 10-14 

mostellerensis 352 

play f air l 352 

rot u ndifor mis 352 

transversa 350 



INDEX 



479 



)rthldae 350 
Orthinae 350 
Orthis actoniae 352 

alternate var. retrorsistria 419 

hi sulcata 468 

caltigramma 352 

canatis 386, 389 

cava 424 

c/yize 417 

elegantula 386 

flabellulum 363 

grandis 452, 453 

inierpiicata 357 

lunata 157 

pectinella 363 

retror si stria 419 

salteri 423, 424 

spiriferoides 424 

iesiudinaria 380 
Or/ A or #y # £ A fr / a 343 
OsoYtoichtkys 285 

marginis 285 
Os£ta 34-37 
Osieorachis 37 
Ostracoda 175-219 
Oxoplecia 341, 427 

calhouni 427 

dorsata 427 

mutabilis 427 

sp, 427 ; PL io p figs. 11-13, J 7 



Pachycormus 35, 37 

Pachyde rmophyll um 61, 62, 65 

papillosum 65 
Pachyglossa 233 
Pachyglosselta 233 
Packypieris 60-62 65, 66 

dalmatica 60 

lanceolata 66 
Pagiophyllum 74, 80 

oonnivens 80 

m a^« z p &/? ; fta*^ 7 2 

peregrinum 76, 77 
Palaconisci formes 259, 299, 300, 302, 318 
Palaconiscoid fishes 255 
Palaeoniscoidei 259 
Palaeoniscum 284 

ra acropteru m 2 8 4- 2 8 C> 
Palaeoniscus 290 

antiqutts 297, 298 

devonians 297, 298 

freislebeni 308, 309* 

reticidatits 297 

Palaeop&ephurus 300 
Palaeosirophomena 341, 343 
Palcohcmiiiierodont hinge 170, 179* 



Paracentrophoms madagascanensis 316*, 317, 31S 
Paracraniops 331, 34 i h 344, 346, 348, 349 

macella 348, 349 ; PL i, figs. 6-8 

paratia 347* 
Faracyprididae 186 
Paracypris 186 

aer ody « flmi fa 187 

bajociana 186, 187 ; PL 2, figs. 1-8 

polita 186 

projecta 187 

Paramblypterus 290 
Paramesolepis tubevcidaia 308, 309* 
Para plettrophoUs 38, 39 
Paravaucaria paiagonica 87 
Parasemionotidae 33, 34, 38, 315 
Parasemionotis 34, 35 

labordei 312, 316*, 317 
Paris Museum 62, 66 
Parmorthis 386 
Pater ula 229, 232. 234, 236, 343 

balclatchiensis 235 

p£&0m 234> 235, 236. 237 ; PL 2, figs. 3^5, 
8-10, 13, 16 

polita 235-237 
Patcrulidae 234 
Patterson, C. 1-43 
Paucicrura 386 

sowerbii 389 
Pecopteris 48, 49 
Pevleidus 36 

stoschiensis 36 
Petrocrania 251, 252 
J\hacops sp, 104 
Phaulactis 157 
Philhedra 251. 34} 

hemip us tulos a 2 .■ ( 9 

pustule sa 249 
Philhedrella nq t 251, 252 

acra 252 

buceulenia 252 

celtica 251 , 252, 253 ; PL 4, figs. i 7l 18, 20, 
2i P 23, 24 

despectata 252 

glabra 252 

hokeni 252 

mimetica 251 

mi £ rat a 252 

Pholidophoridae 32, 33, 38, 39, 315 
Fhol i d op hori formes 4, 6, 32, 38, 40 
Pholidophonstion 3 1 
PhoUdophoroidea 33, 317 
Pholidophoroides 31 

Pholidophorus 4, 12, 15, 19, 25, 31-35, 37-39, 3:4 
feft$ 13, 31-33^ 39 
brevis 5, 7 
higginsi 32 
purbeckensis 7 
segusiamts 32, 39 
rtjftifts 8, 27, 31-33, 316*, 317 



4 So 



INDEX 



Pholidops 34 8 

elegans 348 

estona 348, 349 

injrasilurica 348 
Phragrno rt h i s 3 7 8 
Pinaceae 80 
Ptotetftf 185 

gafunensis 185, 18ft 

jurassica 185 ; PI. i, figs. 7-10 

JHatycopina 1 76, 183 
Platyschisma helicites 125, 135, 146 
Platysomidae 317 
Plafysomus- superbus 309* 
Platystrophia 341, 342, 244, 370, 371 

dentata 371 

precedens major 371 

sublimis 370, 371 ; PI. 3, Tigs. 15-22 

irenionensis 371 
Platystrophimae 370 
Plectambonitacea 428 
Plectairypa imbricata 106 
Mectorihidae 370 
Plegmolepis 260 
Pleura c vth ere 2 3 

impar 204 

kirtonensis 203, 204, 205 ; PI. io, figs. 14-18; 
PL 11, iigs. 1-5 

nodosa 204 ) PL 11, figs, 6-21 
Pleurocytherinae 176, 203 
Pleuropholidae 38, 39 
Pleuropholis 38, 39 

formosa 5, 6 

janotti 39 

pomp&cki 39 

t Holler i 39 
wagneri 39 

Pneumatocythere 193 

bajociana 180, 181*, 193, 195 5 P1 - 5- fi g s - 
7-10 ; PL 6, figs. 1-10 ; Pi. 7, figs. 1-4 

Podocarpaceae 69, 80, $$ t 85-87, 89 
Podocarpus By, 90 

u&tus S3 
Podocopida 183 
Podocopina 176, 18O 
Poleumiia discors 105, 140 

globosa ioi, 1 i2 P 113, 128 
Poly don 302 

Poly pier us senegalus 317, 318* 
Portrane Limestone 224 
Praefu hrbergieUa 1 Q 7 

arens 197, 198; PL 8, figs, 6-15; PL 9, figs. 1-3 

Praeschuleridea 179, 183, 207 
sp, 182* 
suhtrigona 207, 208*, 209 

Primitia sp. 114, 140 

Procyiheridea 213-215 

arcuaiocoslata 214 

bet: 1 2 1 4 
crassa 214 



exempla 214 

laqweata 214 

luxutiosa 214 

parva 214 

spinaecostaia 214 

triangula 213-215 

triebeli 214 

vitiosa 352 
Productorthinae 352 
Proetus sp, 136 
Progonocy there 191 

cristata 191, ig2 ; PL 4] figs. 5-15 ; PL 5, 

figs. 1-6 

sp. 181* 

s&JJa 191. 19- 
Progonocytheridae 191, 209 

Progonocy thermae 191 
Prokopia 378 
I'rotelopidae 38 
Protoacanthocythere 195 

faveolata 195, 196 ; PL 7, figs. 5^13 ; PL 8 ? 

figs. 1-5 
Protochoneles hidloviensis ioi, 112, 116, 117, 121, 

123, 125, i* 6 > 129-131, 133- J 35- M5- *4^ 150 
Protocytheridac 209 
Protocytherinae 176, 203, 209 
Pseudocrama 251, 341, 343, 345, 347 

divaricata 345, 346*; PL 1, figs. 4, 5 
Pseudoctenis 49 

to Hit 51 
Pseiidophoiidops 348 
Pterinea nupera 145 

sp. 108, 135 
Pteronisculus 36, 264, 269, 282 

aldingeri 282 

arambourgi 311, 312, 313* 

gunnari 280 
Pteronitella retrofiexa 101, 123, 129, 135, 145 
Ptilodictya lanceolate*, 113 

sp, 1 01 
Ptychoglypius 343 
Purbeek Beds 3, 5, 6 
Pycnodontoidea 317 
Pygopteridae 266, 276 
Pvgoptents 265, 266, 276, 284 

aniiguus 285 

elegans 276 

greenocki 276 

)iietsen% 282, 284 
Pyritocephalun sculpt its 308, 309* 



Raymondella lypa 410 

Resserella 386 
canalis 389 
elegantula 10 1, 105, 
intermedia 388 
expectata 387, 388 
striata 386, 387 
lineaia 387 



106, 136, 140, 141 



INDEX 



1 '^ ' 



Reuschella 341, 342, 411 , 413 
bilobata 4 r 3—4 1 5 

horderleyensis 334, 337- 33a 411, 413-417 I 

PL 8, tigs 1 -10 

- undulata 412, 415-417 ; PL 8. figs. 11-17 

obtonga 414 

semiglobata 4 1 1 
Rhabdocyclus 143 

porpiioides 1 o 1 , 1 1 2, 113 
Rhabdolepidae 284, 318 
Rhabdotepis 258, 264, 265, 284, 285, 286, 291 

macro pter us 285 , 286, 287*, 289 

saarbrueckensis 289*, 318 

stria tits 266 
Rhactorthinae 371 

Rhactorthis 331, 341, 344, 371, 372 

crassa 372-374- 375*; PI. 4- tigs. 1^6 

m el merb i e nsis 375 
Rkadinichthys antiquus 298 

canobiensis 308, 309*, 310 

devonicus 297 , 29S 

fast for mis 280 

reticulata* 297 
Rhipidomella hybrida 105, 128 
Rhynchonella nucula Beds 98 
Khynchonellacea 467 
Rhynchotrematidae 467 
Rhysostreta 241 
Rostricelhda 341, 342, 467, 468 

amhigena 468 

ro strata 467 

sparsa 467 ; PL 16, figs. 9, 15-17 

triangularis 468 
Rowellella 224, 229, 233 

minuta 233 ; PI. i, figs, 8-12, 14-28 
Ruflorinia 47, 55, 59, 61 

sierra 4 8 p 55 p 56*, 57, 5**i &°. 6 7, ^8 ; PL 2, 
figs. 8, g ; PL 5, figs. 21 

Salopia 341, 423 

Salter 1 gracilis 424 

sp. 423 ; PL 10, figs. 1 , 2 
Salopina tunata 101, 116, 117, 121, 123, 125. 126, 

129. 130, 134, 135, 145, 146, 157 
Sampo oepiki 428 
Sauvichthys 36 

omatus 23 
Scaphelasma 229, 240, 241 

sept a turn 241 

sp. 240 ; PL 2, figs. 6, 7 
Schizambon 229, 241 
SchizQcvania striata 130 
Schizotreta 229, 232, 246 

concava 246, 247 ; PL 4, figs. 5. §, 10, 12-14 

conica 246 

posteroconvexa 247 

shuleri 247 

sp. 247 ; PL 3, figs, J8-21 

willardi 247 



Schuhridea 179, 183, 207 
Schulerideidae 207 
Schuleridemae 176, 207 
Sciadopilys 80 
Scleropteris 62, 66 

com pacta 66 

laevigata 66 

phillipsii 66 

pome Hi 66 
Scottish Museum, Edinburgh 258, 261, 266, 267, 

2 77< ^95- 3°^ 453 
Semionotoidea 317 
Semi n otus c ap e n s i $ 3 1 3 
Sequoia gig ant ea 86, 89 

sempervirens 86, 89 
Sequoiadendron 86, 89 
Sericoidea 341, 344, 451, 4^2 

abdiia 452 

restrict a 452 

sp. 451 ; PL 12. figs. 15, 16 

Serpulites longissimus ioi, 116, 121, 123, 125, 126, 
129-131, t3 4j 135, i 45 

Skaleria omatella ioi, 115-118, 125, i2<>, 129, 

143, 145, 150 

sp. ioi, 112, 128, 131, 133 
Silurian, Ludlow District 93-171 
Siphonotretaea 241 
Siphonotretidae 241 
Skenidiidae 375 
Skenidioides 341. 343, 375, 377 

Mllingsi 375 

costatus 375, 376, 377 ; PL 4, figs, 7-14 

lewisi 147 
Slav a inter rapt a 107, 128, 134, [43 
SI eaves Oak Beds 148 
Smeathenella 337 

S&werbyeJla 342, 343, 405, 43a, 435, 447 

musculosa 342, 433, 435-439- 44*-447 ; 

PI. ii, figs, 18-27 
praecursor 448 
sericea4M t 431*, 435-447 

permixta 342, 434, 435-447; PL n h 
figs. 10- 1 7 
var. soudleyensis 432 
soudleyensis 405, 407, 408, 432 r 435-447 ; 
PL iz s figs. 1-8 
sp. 105, 128 
Sowerbyellidae 430 

Sp haeri rhy no h i a w ilsoni 100, 1 o 1 , 105, 112-116, 
126, 129, 131, 133, 134, 138, i 4 o, 143, 149, 150 
Sphenolepis 87 
Sphenopieris 48 
Sp infer elevuta Shales 135 
Spirjferacea 468 
Spmidyloireta 229, 237, 238 
concentrica 237, 239 

dcclivis 2}Q 

parva 238, 239, 240 ; PI. z y figs, u, 12, 14, 15, 
17-25 ; PL 3, figs, r, 5, 9, 15 



482 

Stachycarpus 87 
Sfmigeria 6o t 61 

paradox a 61 
Stegotrachelidae 294. 318 

Stegotrachehts 33> 258, 294 

fin lay 1 294. 295, 296*, 298, 305, 308, 310 
stereolepiA marginis 285 
Stockholm Museum So 
Siramatopora carteri 105, 136 

sp, 101, 134 
Strophomena 341, 344. 452 ^ 453 

expansa 455, 45 s 

grandis 452, 453, 454 ; PL 12, figs. 17, 20, 21 ; 
PL 13, fig. 2 

planumbona 453 

rugosa 452 

sp. 454 ; Pi. 13, figs- 1, 3. 4 

spirifevoides 424, 425 
Strophomenacea 452 
Strop ho men idae 452 
Strophonella euglypha 101 , 105, 112 1 14, 125, 126, 

128, 129, 131, 133, 134, *3 6 > r 4°- r 43> 147 

filosa 128 

funimlata toi, 112-114, 126, 131, 133, 147 
Swansea University College 158 
Systenocythere 211 

exilofasciata 211, 212 ; PL 14. figs. 7-10, 
13-17 ; PL 15, figs. 1-4 



Taiwana 87 

Taxodiaceae 69, 80, 86, 87, 89 

Tax odium 86 

Tegeolepidae 297, 299, 300, 318 

Tegeolepis 258, 299 

clarki 299. 300, 301*, 305, 308 
Ter&bratulites biforatus 370 
Thecia gray ana 105, 140 
Tico flora 47 
Ticoa 47, 48, 6o p 61 

harrisii 48, 49, 50*, 51, 52*, 
60, 67 ; PL i t figs. 2, 5 ; 
PL 4, figs, 15, 1 6, 20 

magnipinnulata 50*, 52*, 53, 54*, 

66 ; PI. I, figs. 1, 3- 4 ; F1 - 
PL 4, figs. 17-19 
Tomaxellia 47, 86, 87, 89, 90 

degiustoi 47. 84*. 86. 87, 89 ; PL 7, 
40 ; PL 8, figs, 58-60 ; PL n f ; 

fig- 79 

Trachichlhyidae 314 
Trematidae 242 
Trematis 229, 242*. 243 

cancel I at a 243 

corona 243. 244 



INDEX 



2 ° AUG [964 



Lis. i, 2 



51> 54* 
PL 2 



55- 57. 

fig 7 ; 

55, 64, 

fig, 6 ; 



figs* 39. 

PL 12, 






^t H\£ 



craigensu 243, 244 

crassiptincia 243 

ellipiopora 243, 244 

foerstei 243 

fragilts 243 

huronensis 243 

meUiflua 243, 244 

millepunctata 243 

minneapolis 243 

montrealensis 243 

ohlaia 243 

otowjagwsis 243 

para a 243 

punctata 243, 244 

punctostriata 243 

quincuncialis 243 

siluriana 243, 244 

sp. 243. 244 ; PL 4, figs. 3, 4, 8 

spinas a 243 

terminalis 243 

umbonata 243 
Trigonia hemisphaerica 177 
Trimerellacea 234 
1 riplesia 343 
Triples! acea 424 
Triplesiidae 424 
Tubingen Museum 301, 302 

Undiferina 24 Q 

University College, London 158, 304 

VeUantQ 341, 428 

pyramidal* s 428 

sp. 428 ; PL 10, figs, 14, 18 



Walmsley, V. G. 93- 1 ? 1 

[VateomcMns 258, 259, 260, 261, 264, 271, 273, 

275* 285 
aitkeni 272 
totei 260 

pectinaius 260, 261, 26 2, 263, 265, 267 , 269, 
272, 304, 310-312, 313 + 
H/£fc&m#/tt£ 34, 35, 37 
eugnathoides 34 , 312, 316*, 317 

H'atfs*J/fl 382 

Wen lock Limestone 104 

Shales 103 
Whitcliffe Beds 120-120, 129, 130, 134, 135. 145, 

146, 148-150 
Whiifieldella canalis jot, 149, 150 

Williams, A. 3 2 7"47 r 
Wihonia Shales 100 
wilson i Grits 100 
Wooton Beds 148 
Wright, A. D. 221-254 




# ■